Table of Contents Author Guidelines Submit a Manuscript
Journal of Pregnancy
Volume 2017 (2017), Article ID 8783294, 14 pages
https://doi.org/10.1155/2017/8783294
Review Article

Scoping Review on Maternal Health among Immigrant and Refugee Women in Canada: Prenatal, Intrapartum, and Postnatal Care

1Faculty of Health, York University, Toronto, ON, Canada
2Centre for Urban Health Solutions, St. Michael’s Hospital, Toronto, ON, Canada

Correspondence should be addressed to N. Khanlou

Received 17 August 2016; Revised 27 December 2016; Accepted 4 January 2017; Published 22 January 2017

Academic Editor: Fabio Facchinetti

Copyright © 2017 N. Khanlou et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. Statistics Canada, “Immigration and ethnocultural diversity in Canada,” in National Household Survey, Statistics Canada, Ontario, Canada, 2011. View at Google Scholar
  2. Facts and figures 2013—Immigration Overview, http://www.cic.gc.ca/english/resources/statistics/facts2013/permanent/.
  3. United Nations Population Fund: State of World Population 2006, A Passage to Hope: Women and International Migration, UNFPA, New York, NY, USA, 2006.
  4. S. Kita, M. Minatani, N. Hikita, M. Matsuzaki, M. Shiraishi, and M. Haruna, “A systematic review of the physical, mental, social, and economic problems of immigrant women in the perinatal period in Japan,” Journal of Immigrant and Minority Health, vol. 17, no. 6, pp. 1863–1881, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  5. Maternal Health, http://www.who.int/topics/maternal_health/en/.
  6. M. Waterstone, S. Bewley, and C. Wolfe, “Incidence and predictors of severe obstetric morbidity: case-control study,” British Medical Journal, vol. 322, no. 7294, pp. 1089–1093, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  7. K. Pottie, C. Greenaway, J. Feightner et al., “Evidence-based clinical guidelines for immigrants and refugees,” Canadian Medical Association Journal, vol. 183, no. 12, pp. E824–E925, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  8. H. Arksey and L. O'Malley, “Scoping studies: towards a methodological framework,” International Journal of Social Research Methodology, vol. 8, no. 1, pp. 19–32, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  9. S. E. Brien, D. L. Lorenzetti, S. Lewis, J. Kennedy, and W. A. Ghali, “Overview of a formal scoping review on health system report cards,” Implementation Science, vol. 5, no. 1, article no. 2, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  10. L. Hooker, B. Ward, and G. Verrinder, “Domestic violence screening in maternal and child health nursing practice: a scoping review,” Contemporary Nurse, vol. 42, no. 2, pp. 198–215, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  11. M. J. Grant and A. Booth, “A typology of reviews: an analysis of 14 review types and associated methodologies,” Health Information and Libraries Journal, vol. 26, no. 2, pp. 91–108, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  12. H. M. L. Daudt, C. Van Mossel, and S. J. Scott, “Enhancing the scoping study methodology: a large, inter-professional team's experience with Arksey and O'Malley's framework,” BMC Medical Research Methodology, vol. 13, article 48, pp. 1–9, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  13. S. E. Brien, D. L. Lorenzetti, S. Lewis, J. Kennedy, and W. A. Ghali, “Overview of a formal scoping review on health system report cards,” Implementation Science, vol. 5, no. 1, article 2, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  14. Canadian Council of Refugees, Refugees and Immigrants: A Glossary, The Canadian Council of Refugees, Montreal, Canada, 2010, http://ccrweb.ca/en/glossary.
  15. Thomson Reuters: Endnote, Thomson Scientific Releases EndNote X1 for Windows, Microsoft Corporation, San Francisco, Calif, USA, 2012.
  16. N. Khanlou, N. Haque, and A. Skinner, “Maternal health of immigrants in Canada: a scoping review,” in Proceedings of the Immigrant and Racialized Women's Health Project Conference, Ryerson University, Toronto, Canada, 2014.
  17. C. Jarvis, M. Munoz, L. Graves, R. Stephenson, V. D'Souza, and V. Jimenez, “Retrospective review of prenatal care and perinatal outcomes in a group of uninsured pregnant women,” Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology Canada, vol. 33, no. 3, pp. 235–243, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  18. Z. Mumtaz, B. O'Brien, and G. Higginbottom, “Navigating maternity health care: a survey of the Canadian prairie newcomer experience,” BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth, vol. 14, no. 1, article no. 4, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  19. G. M. Higginbottom, J. Safipour, S. Yohani et al., “An ethnographic investigation of the maternity healthcare experience of immigrants in rural and urban Alberta, Canada,” BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth, vol. 16, article 20, 2016. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  20. M. Miszkurka, M. V. Zunzunegui, and L. Goulet, “Immigrant status, antenatal depressive symptoms, and frequency and source of violence: what's the relationship?” Archives of Women's Mental Health, vol. 15, no. 5, pp. 387–396, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  21. M. Ruiz-Casares, C. Rousseau, A. Laurin-Lamothe et al., “Access to health care for undocumented migrant children and pregnant women: the paradox between values and attitudes of health care professionals,” Maternal and Child Health Journal, vol. 17, no. 2, pp. 292–298, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  22. M. L. Urquia, J. W. Frank, R. H. Glazier, R. Moineddin, F. I. Matheson, and A. J. Gagnon, “Neighborhood context and infant birthweight among recent immigrant mothers: a multilevel analysis,” American Journal of Public Health, vol. 99, no. 2, pp. 285–293, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  23. N. Auger, J. Giraud, and M. Daniel, “The joint influence of area income, income inequality, and immigrant density on adverse birth outcomes: a population-based study,” BMC Public Health, vol. 9, article no. 237, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  24. T. Moffat, D. Sellen, W. Wilson, L. Anderson, S. Chadwick, and S. Amarra, “Comparison of infant vitamin D supplement use among canadian-born, immigrant, and refugee mothers,” Journal of Transcultural Nursing, vol. 26, no. 3, pp. 261–269, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  25. J. G. Ray, M. J. Vermeulen, M. J. Schull, G. Singh, R. Shah, and D. A. Redelmeier, “Results of the recent immigrant pregnancy and perinatal long-term evaluation study (RIPPLES),” CMAJ, vol. 176, no. 10, pp. 1419–1426, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  26. M. Stewart, C. L. Dennis, M. Kariwo et al., “Challenges faced by refugee new parents from Africa in Canada,” Journal of Immigrant and Minority Health, vol. 17, no. 4, pp. 1146–1156, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  27. M. Quintanilha, M. J. Mayan, J. Thompson, and R. C. Bell, “Contrasting “back home” and “here”: How Northeast African migrant women perceive and experience health during pregnancy and postpartum in Canada,” International Journal for Equity in Health, vol. 15, no. 1, article 80, 2016. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  28. N. Daoud, M. L. Urquia, P. O'Campo et al., “Prevalence of abuse and violence before, during, and after pregnancy in a national sample of Canadian women,” American Journal of Public Health, vol. 102, no. 10, pp. 1893–1901, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  29. D. E. Stewart, A. J. Gagnon, L. A. Merry, and C.-L. Dennis, “Risk factors and health profiles of recent migrant women who experienced violence associated with pregnancy,” Journal of Women's Health, vol. 21, no. 10, pp. 1100–1106, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  30. M. Miszkurka, L. Goulet, and M. V. Zunzunegui, “Contributions of immigration to depressive symptoms among pregnant women in Canada,” Canadian Journal of Public Health, vol. 101, no. 5, pp. 358–364, 2010. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  31. M. Peer, C. N. Soares, R. D. Levitan, D. L. Streiner, and M. Steiner, “Antenatal depression in a multi-ethnic, community sample of Canadian immigrants: psychosocial correlates and hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis function,” Canadian Journal of Psychiatry, vol. 58, no. 10, pp. 579–587, 2013. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  32. D. Kingston, M. Heaman, B. Chalmers et al., “Comparison of maternity experiences of canadian-born and recent and non-recent immigrant women: findings from the canadian maternity experiences survey,” Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology Canada, vol. 33, no. 11, pp. 1105–1115, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  33. P. Zelkowitz, J. Schinazi, L. Katofsky et al., “Factors associated with depression in pregnant immigrant women,” Transcultural Psychiatry, vol. 41, no. 4, pp. 445–464, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  34. M. L. Urquia, I. Ying, R. H. Glazier, H. Berger, L. R. De Souza, and J. G. Ray, “Serious preeclampsia among different immigrant groups,” Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology Canada, vol. 34, no. 4, pp. 348–352, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  35. N. Muhajarine, J. Ng, A. Bowen, J. Cushon, and S. Johnson, “Understanding the impact of the Canada prenatal nutrition program: a quantitative evaluation,” Canadian Journal of Public Health, vol. 103, no. 7, supplement 1, pp. eS26–eS31, 2012. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  36. A. J. Gagnon, A. Van Hulst, L. Merry et al., “Cesarean section rate differences by migration indicators,” Archives of Gynecology and Obstetrics, vol. 287, no. 4, pp. 633–639, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  37. T. Boshari, M. L. Urquia, M. Sgro, L. R. De Souza, and J. G. Ray, “Differences in birthweight curves between newborns of immigrant mothers vs. infants born in their corresponding native countries: systematic overview,” Paediatric and Perinatal Epidemiology, vol. 27, no. 2, pp. 118–130, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  38. K. Wilson-Mitchel and J. A. Rummens, “Perinatal outcomes of uninsured immigrant, refugee and migrant mothers and newborns living in Toronto, Canada,” International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, vol. 10, no. 6, pp. 2198–2213, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  39. A. C. Brathwaite and C. C. Williams, “Childbirth experiences of professional Chinese Canadian women,” Journal of Obstetric, Gynecologic, and Neonatal Nursing, vol. 33, no. 6, pp. 748–755, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  40. I. Hyman and G. Dussault, “Negative consequences of acculturation on health behaviour, social support and stress among pregnant Southeast Asian immigrant women in Montreal: an exploratory study,” Canadian Journal of Public Health, vol. 91, no. 5, pp. 357–360, 2000. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  41. L. Mamisachvili, P. Ardiles, G. Mancewicz, S. Thompson, K. Rabin, and L. E. Ross, “Culture and postpartum mood problems: similarities and differences in the experiences of first- and second-generation canadian women,” Journal of Transcultural Nursing, vol. 24, no. 2, pp. 162–170, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  42. Y. Debessai, C. Costanian, M. Roy, M. El-Sayed, and H. Tamim, “Inadequate prenatal care use among Canadian mothers: findings from the maternity experiences survey,” Journal of Perinatology, vol. 36, no. 6, pp. 420–426, 2016. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  43. P. Caulford and Y. Vali, “Providing health care to medically uninsured immigrants and refugees,” CMAJ, vol. 174, no. 9, pp. 1253–1254, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  44. K. Munro, C. Jarvis, M. Munoz, V. D'Souza, and L. Graves, “Undocumented pregnant women: what does the literature tell us?” Journal of Immigrant and Minority Health, vol. 15, no. 2, pp. 281–291, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  45. L. Redwood-Campbell, H. Thind, M. Howard, J. Koteles, N. Fowler, and J. Kaczorowski, “Understanding the health of refugee women in host countries: lessons from the kosovar re-settlement in Canada,” Prehospital and Disaster Medicine, vol. 23, no. 4, pp. 322–327, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  46. C. Ng and K. B. Newbold, “Health care providers' perspectives on the provision of prenatal care to immigrants,” Culture, Health and Sexuality, vol. 13, no. 5, pp. 561–574, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  47. S. Brar, S. Tang, N. Drummond et al., “Perinatal care for South Asian immigrant women and women born in Canada: telephone survey of users,” Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology Canada, vol. 31, no. 8, pp. 708–716, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  48. A. Ling, “Accessing appropriate health care services for immigrant women in Canada,” International Journal of Childbirth Education, vol. 15, no. 4, p. 34, 2000. View at Google Scholar
  49. M. L. Urquia, R. H. Glazier, L. Mortensen et al., “Severe maternal morbidity associated with maternal birthplace in three high-immigration settings,” The European Journal of Public Health, vol. 25, no. 4, pp. 620–625, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  50. R. Bhagat, J. Johnson, S. Grewal, P. Pandher, E. Quong, and K. Triolet, “Mobilizing the community to address the prenatal health needs of immigrant punjabi women,” Public Health Nursing, vol. 19, no. 3, pp. 209–214, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  51. Y. Lu and L. Racine, “Reviewing Chinese immigrant women's health experiences in English-speaking Western countries: a postcolonial feminist analysis,” Health Sociology Review, vol. 24, no. 1, pp. 15–28, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  52. B. Al-Sahab, M. Saqib, G. Hauser, and H. Tamim, “Prevalence of smoking during pregnancy and associated risk factors among Canadian women: a national survey,” BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth, vol. 10, article no. 24, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  53. C. Kowal, J. Kuk, and H. Tamim, “Characteristics of weight gain in pregnancy among canadian women,” Maternal & Child Health Journal, vol. 16, no. 3, pp. 668–676, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  54. Health Canada, “Health Care System,” http://www.hc-sc.gc.ca/hcs-sss/index-eng.php.
  55. M. da Conceicao and M. H. Figueiredo, “Immigrant women’s perspective on prenatal and postpartum care: systematic review,” Journal of Immigrant and Minority Health, vol. 17, no. 1, pp. 276–284, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  56. P. A. Janssen, A. D. Henderson, and K. L. MacKay, “Family violence and maternal mortality in the south asian community: the role of obstetrical care providers,” Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology Canada, vol. 31, no. 11, pp. 1045–1049, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  57. D. Kingston, M. Heaman, M. Urquia et al., “Correlates of abuse around the time of pregnancy: results from a national survey of Canadian women,” Maternal and Child Health Journal, vol. 20, no. 4, pp. 778–789, 2016. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  58. R. McElroy, M. Laskin, D. Jiang, R. Shah, and J. G. Ray, “Rates of rubella immunity among immigrant and non-immigrant pregnant women,” Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology Canada, vol. 31, no. 5, pp. 409–413, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  59. T.-Y. Lee, C. K. Landy, O. Wahoush, N. Khanlou, Y.-C. Liu, and C.-C. Li, “A descriptive phenomenology study of newcomers' experience of maternity care services: Chinese women's perspectives,” BMC Health Services Research, vol. 14, article 114, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  60. M. I. Heaman, C. G. Green, C. V. Newburn-Cook, L. J. Elliott, and M. E. Helewa, “Social inequalities in use of prenatal care in manitoba,” Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology Canada, vol. 29, no. 10, pp. 806–816, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  61. K. Munro, C. Jarvis, L. Y. Kong, V. D'Souza, and L. Graves, “Perspectives of family physicians on the care of uninsured pregnant women,” Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology Canada, vol. 35, no. 7, pp. 599–605, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  62. M. I. Heaman, M. Moffatt, L. Elliott et al., “Barriers, motivators and facilitators related to prenatal care utilization among inner-city women in Winnipeg, Canada: a case-control study,” BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth, vol. 14, no. 1, article no. 227, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  63. M. L. Urquia, P. J. O'Campo, and M. I. Heaman, “Revisiting the immigrant paradox in reproductive health: the roles of duration of residence and ethnicity,” Social Science & Medicine, vol. 74, no. 10, pp. 1610–1621, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  64. S. Wanigaratne, D. C. Cole, K. Bassil, I. Hyman, R. Moineddin, and M. L. Urquia, “Contribution of HIV to maternal morbidity among refugee women in Canada,” American Journal of Public Health, vol. 105, no. 12, pp. 2449–2456, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  65. R. R. Shah, J. G. Ray, N. Taback, F. Meffe, and R. H. Glazier, “Adverse pregnancy outcomes among foreign-born Canadians,” Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology Canada, vol. 33, no. 3, pp. 207–215, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  66. A. J. Gagnon, L. Merry, and K. Haase, “Predictors of emergency cesarean delivery among international migrant women in Canada,” International Journal of Gynecology and Obstetrics, vol. 121, no. 3, pp. 270–274, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  67. L. Merry, R. Small, B. Blondel, and A. J. Gagnon, “International migration and caesarean birth: a systematic review and meta-analysis,” BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth, vol. 13, article no. 27, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  68. A. L. Park, M. L. Urquia, and J. G. Ray, “Risk of Preterm Birth According to Maternal and Paternal Country of Birth: A Population-Based Study,” Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology Canada, vol. 37, no. 12, pp. 1053–1062, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  69. A. J. Gagnon, M. Zimbeck, and J. Zeitlin, “Migration to western industrialised countries and perinatal health: a systematic review,” Social Science & Medicine, vol. 69, no. 6, pp. 934–946, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  70. N. Auger, M. Chery, and M. Daniel, “Rising disparities in severe adverse birth outcomes among Haitians in Québec, Canada, 1981–2006,” Journal of Immigrant & Minority Health, vol. 14, no. 2, pp. 198–208, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  71. M. Heaman, D. Kingston, B. Chalmers, R. Sauve, L. Lee, and D. Young, “Risk factors for preterm birth and small-for-gestational-age births among canadian women,” Paediatric and Perinatal Epidemiology, vol. 27, no. 1, pp. 54–61, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  72. M. L. Urquia, J. W. Frank, R. H. Glazier, and R. Moineddin, “Birth outcomes by neighbourhood income and recent immigration in Toronto,” Health Reports, vol. 18, no. 4, pp. 21–30, 2007. View at Google Scholar
  73. M. L. Urquia, J. W. Frank, R. Moineddin, and R. H. Glazier, “Immigrants' duration of residence and adverse birth outcomes: a population-based study,” BJOG: An International Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, vol. 117, no. 5, pp. 591–601, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  74. N. Auger, Z.-C. Luo, R. W. Platt, and M. Daniel, “Do mother's education and foreign born status interact to influence birth outcomes? Clarifying the epidemiological paradox and the healthy migrant effect,” Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health, vol. 62, no. 5, pp. 402–409, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  75. N. Auger, M. Abrahamowicz, A. L. Park, and W. Wynant, “Extreme maternal education and preterm birth: time-to-event analysis of age and nativity-dependent risks,” Annals of Epidemiology, vol. 23, no. 1, pp. 1–6, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  76. A. Battaglini, S. Gravel, C. Poulin, J. M. Brodeur, D. Du-rand, and S. DeBlois, “Immigration and perinatal risk,” Centres of Excellent for Women's Health Research Bulletin, vol. 2, no. 2, pp. 8–9, 2001. View at Google Scholar
  77. L. R. de Souza, M. L. Urquia, M. Sgro, and J. G. Ray, “One size does not fit all: differences in newborn weight among mothers of philippine and other East asian origin,” Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology Canada, vol. 34, no. 11, pp. 1026–1037, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  78. W. J. Kierans, K. S. Joseph, Z.-C. Luo, R. Platt, R. Wilkins, and M. S. Kramer, “Does one size fit all? The case for ethnic-specific standards of fetal growth,” BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth, vol. 8, article 1, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  79. N. L. Ramuscak, D. Jiang, K. L. Dooling, and D. L. Mowat, “A population-level analysis of birth weight indices in Peel Region, Ontario: the impact of ethnic diversity,” Canadian Journal of Public Health, vol. 103, no. 5, pp. 368–372, 2012. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  80. J. G. Ray, D. A. Henry, and M. L. Urquia, “Sex ratios among Canadian liveborn infants of mothers from different countries,” Canadian Medical Association Journal, vol. 184, no. 9, pp. E492–E496, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  81. G. M. A. Higginbottom, J. Safipour, Z. Mumtaz, Y. Chiu, P. Paton, and J. Pillay, “‘I have to do what I believe’: sudanese women's beliefs and resistance to hegemonic practices at home and during experiences of maternity care in Canada,” BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth, vol. 13, article 51, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  82. M. L. Urquia, H. Berger, and J. G. Ray, “Risk of adverse outcomes among infants of immigrant women according to birth-weight curves tailored to maternal world region of origin,” Canadian Medical Association Journal, vol. 187, no. 1, pp. E32–E40, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  83. A. R. Zipursky, A. L. Park, M. L. Urquia, M. I. Creatore, and J. G. Ray, “Influence of paternal and maternal ethnicity and ethnic enclaves on newborn weight,” Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health, vol. 68, no. 10, pp. 942–949, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  84. J. G. Ray, M. Sgro, M. M. Mamdani et al., “Birth weight curves tailored to maternal world region,” Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology Canada, vol. 34, no. 2, pp. 159–171, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  85. N. Daoud, P. O'Campo, M. L. Urquia, and M. Heaman, “Neighbourhood context and abuse among immigrant and non-immigrant women in Canada: findings from the Maternity Experiences Survey,” International Journal of Public Health, vol. 57, no. 4, pp. 679–689, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  86. B. Chalmers and K. O. Hashi, “432 Somali women's birth experiences in Canada after earlier female genital mutilation,” Birth, vol. 27, no. 4, pp. 227–234, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  87. G. M. A. Higginbottom, E. Hadziabdic, S. Yohani, and P. Paton, “Immigrant women's experience of maternity services in Canada: a meta-ethnography,” Midwifery, vol. 30, no. 5, pp. 544–559, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  88. S. Reitmanova and D. L. Gustafson, ““They can't understand it”: maternity health and care needs of immigrant Muslim women in St. John's, Newfoundland,” Maternal and Child Health Journal, vol. 12, no. 1, pp. 101–111, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  89. D. L. Spitzer, “In visible bodies: minority women, nurses, time, and the new economy of care,” Medical Anthropology Quarterly, vol. 18, no. 4, pp. 490–508, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  90. S. K. Grewal, R. Bhagat, and L. G. Balneaves, “Perinatal beliefs and practices of immigrant Punjabi women living in Canada,” Journal of Obstetric, Gynecologic, and Neonatal Nursing, vol. 37, no. 3, pp. 290–300, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  91. M. Miszkurka, L. Goulet, and M. V. Zunzunegui, “Antenatal depressive symptoms among Canadian-born and immigrant women in Quebec: differential exposure and vulnerability to contextual risk factors,” Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology, vol. 47, no. 10, pp. 1639–1648, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  92. J. M. O'Mahony, T. T. Donnelly, S. Raffin Bouchal, and D. Este, “Cultural background and socioeconomic influence of immigrant and refugee women coping with postpartum depression,” Journal of Immigrant and Minority Health, vol. 15, no. 2, pp. 300–314, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  93. J. M. O'Mahony and T. T. Donnelly, “How does gender influence immigrant and refugee women's postpartum depression help-seeking experiences?” Journal of Psychiatric and Mental Health Nursing, vol. 20, no. 8, pp. 714–725, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  94. C.-L. Dennis, A. Gagnon, A. Van Hulst, and G. Dougherty, “Predictors of breastfeeding exclusivity among migrant and Canadian-born women: results from a multi-centre study,” Maternal & Child Nutrition, vol. 10, no. 4, pp. 527–544, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  95. R. Ganann, W. Sword, L. Thabane, B. Newbold, and M. Black, “Predictors of postpartum depression among immigrant women in the year after childbirth,” Journal of Women's Health, vol. 25, no. 2, pp. 155–165, 2016. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  96. A. J. Gagnon, F. Carnevale, P. Mehta, H. Rousseau, and D. E. Stewart, “Developing population interventions with migrant women for maternal-child health: a focused ethnography,” BMC Public Health, vol. 13, no. 1, article no. 471, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  97. G. M. A. Higginbottom, M. Morgan, J. O'Mahony et al., “Immigrant women's experiences of postpartum depression in Canada: a protocol for systematic review using a narrative synthesis,” Systematic Reviews, vol. 2, article 65, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  98. Public Health Agency of Canada, “The Social determinants of health: an overview implications for policy and the role of the health sector,” 2004, http://www.phac-aspc.gc.ca/ph-sp/determinants/index-eng.php.
  99. G. M. A. Higginbottom, M. Morgan, J. Dassanayake et al., “Immigrant women's experiences of maternity-care services in Canada: a protocol for systematic review using a narrative synthesis,” Systematic Reviews, vol. 1, pp. 27–39, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  100. D. Wilson, S. de la Ronde, S. Brascoupé et al., “Health professionals working with First Nations, Inuit, and Métis consensus guideline,” Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology Canada, vol. 35, no. 6, pp. 550–553, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  101. Government-Assisted Refugee Program, http://www.cic.gc.ca/english/refugees/outside/resettle-gov.asp.
  102. The refugee system in Canada, http://www.cic.gc.ca/english/refugees/canada.asp.
  103. R. Small, C. Roth, M. Raval et al., “Immigrant and non-immigrant women's experiences of maternity care: a systematic and comparative review of studies in five countries,” BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth, vol. 14, no. 1, article 152, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  104. A. J. Gagnon, M. Zimbeck, and J. Zeitlin, “Migration to western industrialised countries and perinatal health: a systematic review,” Social Science and Medicine, vol. 69, no. 6, pp. 934–946, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  105. M. C. Machado, A. Fernandes, B. Padilla et al., “Maternal and child healthcare for immigrant populations,” Background Paper. Edited by: Maria Jose Peiro and Roumyana Benedict, International Organization for Migration (IOM), ‎Geneva, Switzerland, 2009 http://www.migrant-health-europe.org/files/Maternal%20and%20Child%20Care_Background%20Paper%281%29.pdf.
  106. S. Atwal, “The Mandated 3-Month Wait for OHIP Coverage,” Canadian Lawyers for International Human Rights (CLAIHR), http://claihr.ca/2016/02/09/the-mandated-3-month-wait-for-ohip-coverage/.
  107. S. Thomson and R. Osborn, International Profiles of Health Care Systems, The Commonwealth Fund, London, UK, 2015.