Journal of Pregnancy / 2018 / Article / Tab 1

Review Article

Prediction of Preterm Birth: Maternal Characteristics, Ultrasound Markers, and Biomarkers: An Updated Overview

Table 1

Risk factors for preterm birth (adopted from Koulali and Frey) [5, 6].

Maternal characteristics

Family history of preterm birth

Low socio-economic status

Low educational attainment

Maternal age (low and high)




Tobacco use

Low body mass index

Infections (genitourinary or extra genital)

Periodontal disease

Uterine anomalies

History of cervical excisional procedures/surgery (LEEP/conization)

Reproductive history

Prior preterm birth

Prior stillbirth/ Pregnancy loss >16 weeks GA

Induced abortion

Cervical insufficiency

Current pregnancy characteristics

Vaginal bleeding

Use of assisted reproductive technologies

Multiple gestation


Short cervical length

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