Table 3: Virulence-associated genes in Y. enterocolitica.

GenesGene product/functionReference

InvC,trInvasin (an outer membrane protein that is required for efficient translocation of bacteria across the intestinal epithelium)[35]
ailC,trAdhesin (outer membrane protein that may contribute to adhesion, invasion, and resistance to complement-mediated lysis)[36]
virFP,trTranscriptional activator[36]
myfACMucoid Yersinia factor (fimbrial antigen and putative adhesin)[37]
ystAC,trEnterotoxin (Yersinia stable heat-stable toxin that may contribute to the pathogenesis of diarrhea)[38]
ystBCEnterotoxin (Yersinia stable heat-stable toxin that may contribute to the pathogenesis of diarrhea)[38]
ystCCEnterotoxin (Yersinia stable heat-stable toxin that may contribute to the pathogenesis of diarrhea)[39]
fepAEnterochelin receptor protein[40]
fedDEnterochelin receptor protein[40]
FesEnterochelin esterase[40]
tccCPInsecticidal toxin-like protease[35]
ymoAYersinia modulator[41]
hrePSubtilisin/kexin-like protease (host responsive element)[35]
SatStreptogramin acetyltranferase[35]
yadAP,trYersinia adhesin A[42]
ysaPYesinia secretion apparatus[42]

CChromosome borne gene, Pplasmid-borne gene, trtraditional virulence gene.