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Journal of Pathogens
Volume 2011, Article ID 601905, 13 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.4061/2011/601905
Review Article

Characterization of Virulence Factors of Staphylococcus aureus: Novel Function of Known Virulence Factors That Are Implicated in Activation of Airway Epithelial Proinflammatory Response

1Witold Stefanski Institute of Parasitology of the Polish Academy of Sciences, Twarda Street 51/55, 00-818 Warsaw, Poland
2Institute of Experimental Internal Medicine, Medical Faculty, Otto-von-Guericke University, Leipziger Strβ 44, 39120 Magdeburg, Germany
3Institute for Molecular Biology, Hannover Medical School, Carl Neuberg Strβ 1, 30625 Hannover, Germany

Received 15 March 2011; Revised 23 June 2011; Accepted 15 July 2011

Academic Editor: H. D. Williams

Copyright © 2011 Justyna Bien et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

Airway epithelial cells play a major role in initiating inflammation in response to bacterial pathogens. S. aureus is an important pathogen associated with activation of diverse types of infection characterized by inflammation dominated by polymorphonuclear leukocytes. This bacterium frequently causes lung infection, which is attributed to virulence factors. Many of virulence determinants associated with S. aureus-mediated lung infection have been known for several years. In this paper, we discuss recent advances in our understanding of known virulence factors implicated in pneumonia. We anticipate that better understanding of novel functions of known virulence factors could open the way to regulate inflammatory reactions of the epithelium and to develop effective strategies to treat S. aureus-induced airway diseases.