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Journal of Pathogens
Volume 2012 (2012), Article ID 138389, 5 pages
Research Article

Detection and Quantification of Legionella pneumophila from Water Systems in Kuwait Residential Facilities

1Biotechnology Department, Kuwait Institute for Scientific Research, Safat 13109, Kuwait
2Department of Applied Medical Sciences, College of Health Sciences, The Public Authority for Applied Education and Training, Safat 13092, Kuwait

Received 11 April 2012; Revised 27 May 2012; Accepted 30 May 2012

Academic Editor: Kendra Rumbaugh

Copyright © 2012 Qadreyah A. Al-Matawah et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


The prevalence of Legionella pneumophilia in water systems of residential facilities in Kuwait was performed during the period from November 2007 to November 2011. A total of 204 water samples collected from faucets and showerheads in bathrooms (n = 82), taps in kitchens (n = 51), and water tanks (n = 71), from different locations of residential facilities in Kuwait were screened for Legionella pneumophila by the standard culture method and by real time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Out of the 204 samples, 89 (43.6%) samples were positive for Legionella spp., 48 (23.5%) samples were detected by the standard culture method, and 85 (41.7%) were detected by RT-PCR. Of the culture positive Legionella samples, counts ranged between 10 to 2250 CFU/L. Serological typing of 48 Legionella isolates revealed that 6 (12.5%) of these isolates belonged to Legionella pneumophila serogroup 1, 37 (77.1%) isolates to Legionella pneumophila serogroup 3, and 1 isolate each (2.1%) belonged to serogroups 4, 7, and 10. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MICs) of the 46 environmental L. pneumophila isolates against the 10 antimicrobials commonly used for Legionella infection treatments were determined. Rifampicin was found to be the most active against L. pneumophila serogroups isolates in vitro.