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Journal of Pathogens
Volume 2012, Article ID 971958, 7 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2012/971958
Clinical Study

Clinical and Microbiological Profile of HIV/AIDS Cases with Diarrhea in North India

1Department of Microbiology, Maulana Azad Medical College, University of Delhi, Bahadur Shah Zafar Marg, New Delhi 110002, India
2Department of Medicine, Maulana Azad Medical College, University of Delhi, Bahadur Shah Zafar Marg, New Delhi 110002, India

Received 24 September 2012; Revised 30 November 2012; Accepted 3 December 2012

Academic Editor: Nat F. Brown

Copyright © 2012 Arun Kumar Jha et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

Intestinal infections are a significant cause of morbidity and mortality in people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA) especially in developing countries. The present study was conducted to assess the clinical and microbiological spectrum in HIV/AIDS cases with diarrhea and to correlate the occurrence of such pathogens with stool characters, HIV seropositivity status, and CD4 counts. Stools from 154 HIV seropositive subjects and 50 HIV negative controls were examined by direct microscopy, fecal cultures, and serological tests (Clostridium difficile Toxin A, Cryptosporidium antigen, and Entamoeba histolytica antigen ELISA). CD4 T cell enumeration was done using FACS count (Becton Dickinson). The study showed a male preponderance (112 males and 42 females). Weakness, abdominal pain, and anorexia were the most common symptoms. Coccidian parasites were the most common cause of diarrhea in HIV seropositive cases. C. parvum was seen in 60.42% while Isospora belli in 9.03%. Amongst the bacterial pathogens C. difficile was detected in 18.06%, diarrheagenic Escherichia coli in 11.11%, and Shigella spp. in 2.78%. Pathogen isolation rates were more in HIV seropositive cases and subjects with low CD4 T lymphocyte counts. Regular monitoring of CD4 T lymphocyte counts and screening for enteric pathogens will help improve the quality of life for PLWHA.