Table 4: Proteins/genes involved in WSSV antiviral defense in shrimp.

Proteins/genes involved in WSSV antiviral defense in shrimpSpeciesRole in immune responseReference

ActinLitopenaeus vannamei WSSV major structural protein VP26 binds to actin VP26-actin interaction is seen in the early stages of viral infection[35]

ALFPacifastacus leniusculus Interferes with WSSV replication by RNAi mechanism[36]

-IntegrinMarsupenaeus japonicus Integrin mediates signal transduction and activates focal adhesion kinase (FAK). Enhance immune cell adhesion[37]

CalreticulinFenneropenaeus chinensis Modulate cell adhesion, phagocytosis, and integrin-dependent Ca+2 signalling[38]

Caspase-3-like genePenaeus monodon Upregulated during WSSV infection and cause increased apoptosis[39]

C-type lectin (CTL) (pattern recognition protein)Litopenaeus vannamei Participate in nonself-innate immune defense in invertebrates[40]

C-type lectin (LvCTL) (mannose binding CTL)Litopenaeus vannamei Binds to WSSV envelope proteins and exert antiviral activity[41]

Fc lectinFenneropenaeus chinensis Enhance innate immunity, that is, immune recognition, phagocytosis[42]

FortilinPenaeus monodon Antiapoptotic protein, found in high levels during onset of viral infections[43]

HemocyaninMarsupenaeus japonicus Expression of Pj Hc, Pj HcL hemocyanin subunit genes could delay the infection to WSSV[44]
Penaeus monodon Nonspecific antiviral properties and no cytotoxicity to host cells[45]

LGBPPenaeus stylirostris Enhance innate immune responses, activates prophenoloxidase (proPO) case[46]

Manganese superoxide dismutaseFenneropenaeus chinensis Enhance immune defense reactions by eliminating oxidative stress[47]

PmAV (First antiviral gene)Penaeus monodon Inhibit virus-induced cytopathic effect[48]

Pm CBP (chitin-binding protein)Penaeus monodon Upregulated in late stages of WSSV infection and interacts with WSSV O67C (ORF)[49]

Pm Rab7Penaeus monodon Binds to WSSV and VP28, Inhibits WSSV-induced histopathology[50]

Rab GTPaseMarsupenaeus japonicas Upregulated in WSSV-resistant shrimp[51]

Ran proteinMarsupenaeus japonicus Upregulated in WSSV-resistant and infected shrimp[52]

SynteninPenaeus monodon Upregulated in acute phase of a WSSV infection[53]

Syntenin-like protein genePenaeus monodon Involved in signaling pathway of antiviral shrimp immune response[54]