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Journal of Pathogens
Volume 2014, Article ID 183167, 15 pages
Review Article

Chlamydia trachomatis and Genital Mycoplasmas: Pathogens with an Impact on Human Reproductive Health

1Teaching Institute of Public Health “Dr Andrija Štampar” and School of Medicine, University of Zagreb, Šalata 3b, 10000 Zagreb, Croatia
2Clinical Microbiology and Parasitology Unit, Polyclinic “Dr Zora Profozić”, Bosutska 19, 10000 Zagreb, Croatia

Received 29 September 2014; Revised 9 December 2014; Accepted 11 December 2014; Published 31 December 2014

Academic Editor: Nongnuch Vanittanakom

Copyright © 2014 Sunčanica Ljubin-Sternak and Tomislav Meštrović. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


The most prevalent, curable sexually important diseases are those caused by Chlamydia trachomatis (C. trachomatis) and genital mycoplasmas. An important characteristic of these infections is their ability to cause long-term sequels in upper genital tract, thus potentially affecting the reproductive health in both sexes. Pelvic inflammatory disease (PID), tubal factor infertility (TFI), and ectopic pregnancy (EP) are well documented complications of C. trachomatis infection in women. The role of genital mycoplasmas in development of PID, TFI, and EP requires further evaluation, but growing evidence supports a significant role for these in the pathogenesis of chorioamnionitis, premature membrane rupture, and preterm labor in pregnant woman. Both C. trachomatis and genital mycoplasmas can affect the quality of sperm and possibly influence the fertility of men. For the purpose of this paper, basic, epidemiologic, clinical, therapeutic, and public health issue of these infections were reviewed and discussed, focusing on their impact on human reproductive health.