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Journal of Pathogens
Volume 2015, Article ID 789265, 8 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2015/789265
Research Article

Endemicity of Acinetobacter calcoaceticus-baumannii Complex in an Intensive Care Unit in Malaysia

1Jeffrey Cheah School of Medicine and Health Sciences, Monash University Malaysia, 47500 Bandar Sunway, Malaysia
2Department of Pathology, Hospital Sultanah Aminah Johor Bahru, 80100 Johor Bahru, Malaysia
3Institute of Biological Sciences, Faculty of Science, University of Malaya, 50603 Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia

Received 18 August 2015; Revised 22 November 2015; Accepted 25 November 2015

Academic Editor: Hin-Chung Wong

Copyright © 2015 Amreeta Dhanoa et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

Introduction. Acinetobacter calcoaceticus-baumannii complex (ACB complex) is a leading opportunistic pathogen in intensive care units (ICUs). Effective control of spread requires understanding of its epidemiological relatedness. This study aims to determine the genetic relatedness and antibiotic susceptibilities of ACB complex in an ICU in Malaysia. Methodology. Pulsed field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), E-test, and disk diffusion were used for isolates characterization. Results. During the study period (December 2011 to June 2012), 1023 patients were admitted to the ICU and 44 ACB complex (blood, , and blind bronchial aspirates, ) were recovered from 38 ICU patients. Six isolates were from non-ICU patients. Of the 44 ICU isolates, 88.6% exhibited multidrug-resistant (MDR) patterns. There was high degree of resistance, with minimum inhibitory concentration90 (MIC90) of >32 μg/mL for carbapenems and ≥256 μg/mL for amikacin, ampicillin/sulbactam, and cefoperazone/sulbactam. Isolates from the main PFGE cluster were highly resistant. There was evidence of dissemination in non-ICU wards. Conclusion. High number of clonally related MDR ACB complex was found. While the ICU is a likely reservoir facilitating transmission, importation from other wards may be important contributor. Early identification of strain relatedness and implementation of infection control measures are necessary to prevent further spread.