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Journal of Pathogens
Volume 2016, Article ID 3264070, 5 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2016/3264070
Research Article

In Vivo Antimalarial Activity of Annona muricata Leaf Extract in Mice Infected with Plasmodium berghei

Department of Clinical Chemistry, Faculty of Medical Technology, Western University, Kanchanaburi 71170, Thailand

Received 6 November 2015; Revised 5 March 2016; Accepted 6 March 2016

Academic Editor: Alexander Rodriguez-Palacios

Copyright © 2016 Voravuth Somsak et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

Malaria is one of the most important infectious diseases in the world. The choice for the treatment is highly limited due to drug resistance. Hence, finding the new compounds to treat malaria is urgently needed. The present study was attempted to evaluate the antimalarial activity of the Annona muricata aqueous leaf extract in Plasmodium berghei infected mice. Aqueous leaf extract of A. muricata was prepared and tested for acute toxicity in mice. For efficacy test in vivo, standard 4-day suppressive test was carried out. ICR mice were inoculated with 107 parasitized erythrocytes of P. berghei ANKA by intraperitoneal injection. The extracts (100, 500, and 1000 mg/kg) were then given orally by gavage once a day for 4 consecutive days. Parasitemia, percentage of inhibition, and packed cell volume were subsequently calculated. Chloroquine (10 mg/kg) was given to infected mice as positive control while untreated control was given only distilled water. It was found that A. muricata aqueous leaf extract at doses of 100, 500, and 1000 mg/kg resulted in dose dependent parasitemia inhibition of 38.03%, 75.25%, and 85.61%, respectively. Survival time was prolonged in infected mice treated with the extract. Moreover, no mortality to mice was observed with this extract up to a dose of 4000 mg/kg. In conclusion, the A. muricata aqueous leaf extract exerted significant antimalarial activity with no toxicity and prolonged survival time. Therefore, this extract might contain potential lead molecule for the development of a new drug for malaria treatment.