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Journal of Pharmaceutics
Volume 2013, Article ID 517638, 7 pages
Research Article

Antibacterial Derivatives of Ciprofloxacin to Inhibit Growth of Necrotizing Fasciitis Associated Penicillin Resistant Escherichia coli

1University of Nebraska, College of Arts & Sciences, Durham Science Center, Department of Chemistry, Omaha, NE 68182, USA
2Texas A & M Health Science Center, Department of Microbial and Molecular Pathogenesis, Bryan, TX 77807, USA

Received 7 December 2012; Revised 9 April 2013; Accepted 10 April 2013

Academic Editor: Anna Wesolowska

Copyright © 2013 Ronald Bartzatt et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


Escherichia coli (E. coli) is associated with necrotizing fasciitis (type I) and can induce enough damage to tissue causing hypoxia. Three ester derivatives of the broad-spectrum antibiotic ciprofloxacin were placed into bacteria culture simultaneously with the parent ciprofloxacin (drug 1) to ascertain the level of antibacterial activity. The n-propyl (drug 2), n-pentyl (drug 3), and n-octyl (drug 4) esters of ciprofloxacin were synthesized under mixed phase conditions and by microwave excitation. The formation of ester derivatives of ciprofloxacin modified important molecular properties such as Log P and polar surface area which improves tissue penetration, yet preserved strong antibacterial activity. The Log P values for drugs 1, 2, 3, and 4 became −0.701, 0.437, 1.50, and 3.02, respectively. The polar surface areas for drugs 1, 2, 3, and 4 were determined to be 74.6 Angstroms2, 63.6 Angstroms2, 63.6 Angstroms2, and 63.6 Angstroms2, respectively. These values of Log P and polar surface area improved tissue penetration, as indicated by the determination of dermal permeability coefficient () and subsequently into the superficial fascial layer. All drugs induced greater than 60% bacterial cell death at concentrations less than 1.0 micrograms/milliliter. The ester derivatives of ciprofloxacin showed strong antibacterial activity toward penicillin resistant E. coli.