Journal of Pharmaceutics / 2013 / Article / Fig 5

Research Article

Biological Atomic Force Microscopy for Imaging Gold-Labeled Liposomes on Human Coronary Artery Endothelial Cells

Figure 5

Liposome endocytosis occurring at 60 min of incubation (smaller scan area from Figure 4(c)). (a) AFM micrograph obtained at 25 μm (x-y) illustrating the engulfment of the “gold liposomes” during cell membrane internalization. (b) The corresponding fluorescence image clearly shows the positive signaling emitted by the gold liposome clusters that were scanned. (c) AFM micrograph at 65 μm (x-y) of an HCAEC negative control showing a smooth and even membrane surface after 60 min of incubation with FITC-labeled gold-liposomes. (d) The cells with no signalling, which indicated the absence of “gold-liposomes,” were selected for scanning from the corresponding fluorescence images. Cells were fixed in formalin 10% and scanned in contact mode in liquid (DNP-S = 12–24 kHz,  N/m).
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