Table of Contents Author Guidelines Submit a Manuscript
Journal of Pharmaceutics
Volume 2013, Article ID 932797, 10 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2013/932797
Research Article

Biodegradable Polymersomes for the Delivery of Gemcitabine to Panc-1 Cells

1Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA, USA
2Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Pennsylvania, Perelman School of Medicine, Philadelphia, PA, USA
3Department of Neuroscience, University of Miami, Coral Gables, FL, USA
4Department of Bioengineering, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA, USA
5Department of Chemistry, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA, USA
6Department of Chemistry, Duke University, Durham, NC, USA

Received 23 February 2013; Accepted 22 April 2013

Academic Editor: Umesh Gupta

Copyright © 2013 Nimil Sood et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. A. Jemal, R. Siegel, J. Xu, and E. Ward, “Cancer statistics, 2010,” CA Cancer Journal for Clinicians, vol. 60, no. 5, pp. 277–300, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  2. G. S. Group, “Radiation therapy combned with adriamycin or 5-fluorouracil for the treatment of locally unresectable pancreatic carcinoma,” Cancer, vol. 56, no. 11, pp. 2563–2568, 1985. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  3. M. M. Gottesman, “Mechanisms of cancer drug resistance,” Annual Review of Medicine, vol. 53, pp. 615–627, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  4. W. R. Wilson and M. P. Hay, “Targeting hypoxia in cancer therapy,” Nature Reviews Cancer, vol. 11, no. 6, pp. 393–410, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  5. B. Pauwels, A. E. C. Korst, F. Lardon, and J. B. Vermorken, “Combined modality therapy of gemcitabine and radiation,” Oncologist, vol. 10, no. 1, pp. 34–51, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  6. C. G. Moertel, S. Frytak, and R. G. Hahn, “Therapy of locally unresectable pancreatic carcinoma: a randomized comparison of high dose (6000 rads) radiation alone, moderate dose radiation (4000 rads + 5-fluorouracil), and high dose radiation + 5-fluorouracil. The gastrointestinal tumor study group,” Cancer, vol. 48, no. 8, pp. 1705–1710, 1981. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  7. R. A. Wolff, D. B. Evans, D. M. Gravel et al., “Phase I trial of gemcitabine combined with radiation for the treatment of locally advanced pancreatic adenocarcinoma,” Clinical Cancer Research, vol. 7, no. 8, pp. 2246–2253, 2001. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  8. F. Alexis, E. Pridgen, L. K. Molnar, and O. C. Farokhzad, “Factors affecting the clearance and biodistribution of polymeric nanoparticles,” Molecular Pharmaceutics, vol. 5, no. 4, pp. 505–515, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  9. O. Grinberg, A. Gedanken, C. R. Patra, S. Patra, P. Mukherjee, and D. Mukhopadhyay, “Sonochemically prepared BSA microspheres containing Gemcitabine, and their potential application in renal cancer therapeutics,” Acta Biomaterialia, vol. 5, no. 8, pp. 3031–3037, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  10. J. M. Li, W. Chen, H. Wang et al., “Preparation of albumin nanospheres loaded with gemcitabine and their cytotoxicity against BXPC-3 cells in vitro,” Acta Pharmacologica Sinica, vol. 30, no. 9, pp. 1337–1343, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  11. L. Jia, J. J. Zheng, S. M. Jiang, and K. H. Huang, “Preparation, physicochemical characterization and cytotoxicity in vitro of gemcitabine-loaded PEG-PDLLA nanovesicles,” World Journal of Gastroenterology, vol. 16, no. 8, pp. 1008–1013, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  12. B. M. Discher, Y. Y. Won, D. S. Ege et al., “Polymersomes: tough vesicles made from diblock copolymers,” Science, vol. 284, no. 5417, pp. 1143–1146, 1999. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  13. D. E. Discher and A. Eisenberg, “Polymer vesicles,” Science, vol. 297, no. 5583, pp. 967–973, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  14. P. P. Ghoroghchian, G. Li, D. H. Levine et al., “Bioresorbable vesicles formed through spontaneous self-assembly of amphiphilic poly(ethylene oxide)-block-polycaprolactone,” Macromolecules, vol. 39, no. 5, pp. 1673–1675, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  15. N. P. Kamat, G. P. Robbins, J. Rawson, M. J. Therien, I. J. Dmochowski, and D. A. Hammer, “A generalized system for photoresponsive membrane rupture in polymersomes,” Advanced Functional Materials, vol. 20, no. 16, pp. 2588–2596, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  16. J. S. Katz, D. H. Levine, K. P. Davis, F. S. Bates, D. A. Hammer, and J. A. Burdick, “Membrane stabilization of biodegradable polymersomes,” Langmuir, vol. 25, no. 8, pp. 4429–4434, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  17. J. S. Katz, S. Zhong, B. G. Ricart, D. J. Pochan, D. A. Hammer, and J. A. Burdick, “Modular synthesis of biodegradable diblock copolymers for designing functional polymersomes,” Journal of the American Chemical Society, vol. 132, no. 11, pp. 3654–3655, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  18. G. P. Robbins, M. Jimbo, J. Swift, M. J. Therien, D. A. Hammer, and I. J. Dmochowski, “Photoinitiated destruction of composite Porphyrin-Protein polymersomes,” Journal of the American Chemical Society, vol. 131, no. 11, pp. 3872–3874, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  19. W. Y. Ayen, K. Garkhal, and N. Kumar, “Doxorubicin-loaded (PEG)3-PLA nanopolymersomes: effect of solvents and process parameters on formulation development and in vitro study,” Molecular Pharmaceutics, vol. 8, no. 2, pp. 466–478, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  20. F. H. Meng, G. H. M. Engbers, and J. Feijen, “Biodegradable polymersomes as a basis for artificial cells: encapsulation, release and targeting,” Journal of Controlled Release, vol. 101, no. 1–3, pp. 187–198, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  21. J. Park, P. M. Fong, J. Lu et al., “PEGylated PLGA nanoparticles for the improved delivery of doxorubicin,” Nanomedicine, vol. 5, no. 4, pp. 410–418, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  22. V. R. Sinha, K. Bansal, R. Kaushik, R. Kumria, and A. Trehan, “Poly-ε-caprolactone microspheres and nanospheres: an overview,” International Journal of Pharmaceutics, vol. 278, no. 1, pp. 1–23, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  23. T. V. Duncan, K. Susumu, L. E. Sinks, and M. J. Therien, “Exceptional near-infrared fluorescence quantum yields and excited-state absorptivity of highly conjugated porphyrin arrays,” Journal of the American Chemical Society, vol. 128, no. 28, pp. 9000–9001, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  24. P. P. Ghoroghchian, P. R. Frail, K. Susumu et al., “Near-infrared-emissive polymersomes: self-assembled soft matter for in vivo optical imaging,” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, vol. 102, no. 8, pp. 2922–2927, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  25. S. M. Evans, W. T. Jenkins, B. Joiner, E. M. Lord, and C. J. Koch, “2-Nitroimidazole (EF5) binding predicts radiation resistance in individual 9L s.c. tumors,” Cancer Research, vol. 56, no. 2, pp. 405–411, 1996. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  26. M. E. Yildiz, R. K. Prud'homme, I. Robb, and D. H. Adamson, “Formation and characterization of polymersomes made by a solvent injection method,” Polymers for Advanced Technologies, vol. 18, no. 6, pp. 427–432, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  27. F. Ahmed, R. I. Pakunlu, G. Srinivas et al., “Shrinkage of a rapidly growing tumor by drug-loaded polymersomes: pH-triggered release through copolymer degradation,” Molecular Pharmaceutics, vol. 3, no. 3, pp. 340–350, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  28. A. C. R. Grayson, M. J. Cima, and R. Langer, “Size and temperature effects on poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) degradation and microreservoir device performance,” Biomaterials, vol. 26, no. 14, pp. 2137–2145, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  29. T. Ivanova, I. Panaiotov, F. Boury, J. E. Proust, J. P. Benoit, and R. Verger, “Hydrolysis kinetics of poly(D,L-lactide) monolayers spread on basic or acidic aqueous subphases,” Colloids and Surfaces B, vol. 8, no. 4-5, pp. 217–225, 1997. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  30. L. E. Gerweck and K. Seetharaman, “Cellular pH gradient in tumor versus normal tissue: potential exploitation for the treatment of cancer,” Cancer Research, vol. 56, no. 6, pp. 1194–1198, 1996. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  31. R. J. Gillies, N. Raghunand, G. S. Karczmar, and Z. M. Bhujwalla, “MRI of the tumor microenvironment,” Journal of Magnetic Resonance Imaging, vol. 16, no. 4, pp. 430–50, 2002, Erratum in: Journal of Magnetic Resonance Imaging, vol. 16, no. 6, pp.751, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  32. P. Swietach, R. D. Vaughan-Jones, and A. L. Harris, “Regulation of tumor pH and the role of carbonic anhydrase 9,” Cancer and Metastasis Reviews, vol. 26, no. 2, pp. 299–310, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  33. N. A. Christian, M. C. Milone, S. S. Ranka et al., “Tat-functionalized near-infrared emissive polymersomes for dendritic cell labeling,” Bioconjugate Chemistry, vol. 18, no. 1, pp. 31–40, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  34. N. A. Christian, F. Benencia, M. C. Milone et al., “in vivo dendritic cell tracking using fluorescence lifetime imaging and near-infrared-emissive polymersomes,” Molecular Imaging and Biology, vol. 11, no. 3, pp. 167–177, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  35. L. H. Reddy, J. M. Renoir, V. Marsaud, S. Lepetre-Mouelhi, D. Desmaële, and P. Couvreur, “Anticancer efficacy of squalenoyl gemcitabine nanomedicine on 60 human tumor cell panel and on experimental tumor,” Molecular Pharmaceutics, vol. 6, no. 5, pp. 1526–1535, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  36. L. W. Hertel et al., “Synthesis and biological activity of 2′,2′-difluorodeoxycytidine (gemcitabine),” in Biomedical Frontiers of Fluorine Chemistry, I. Ojima, J. R. McCarthy, and J. T. Welch, Eds., pp. 265–278, American Chemical Society, Washington, DC, USA, 1996. View at Google Scholar