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Journal of Parasitology Research publishes papers in all areas of basic and applied parasitology, including host-parasite relationships, parasitic diseases, disease vectors, and the social and economic issues around the impact of parasites.
Journal of Parasitology Research maintains an Editorial Board of practicing researchers from around the world, to ensure manuscripts are handled by editors who are experts in the field of study.
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Occurrence of Gastrointestinal Parasites in Small Ruminants in the Central Part of Myanmar
Gastrointestinal parasite infection in small ruminants remains one of the major economic losses caused by reduced productivity. A total of 380 faecal samples were taken from 280 sheeps in Magway and Pwintbyu Townships and 100 goats in Natmauk Township, Myanmar. Faecal flotation and sedimentation methods were carried out to detect the presence of parasitic infections. Faecal egg and oocyst counts were carried out using the McMaster technique. The overall occurrence of gastrointestinal parasites in small ruminants was 98.4% (374/380). The occurrence of gastrointestinal parasites in sheep (99.3%) was higher than that in goats (96%). The highest occurrence was found in Eimeria spp. (96%), followed by Trichostrongyle (77.1%), Trichuris spp. (35%), and Moniezia expansa (14%). The mixed infection rate was 84.8% (317/374), while a single infection was 15.2% (57/374). The mean eggs per gram (EPG) and oocysts per gram (OPG) of faeces were ranged from 50 to 600 and 50 to 29,800, respectively. Among the 4 nucleotide sequences isolated, one sequence was 94.10-94.47% similarity with Trichostrongylus colubriformis, reported from Laos, and three sequences showed 96.64-99.46% identity with Haemonchus contortus from Laos, China, India, and Mongolia. As gastrointestinal parasite infection in small ruminants was relatively high in the study area, the development of appropriate treatment and control measures should be provided to reduce production losses.
The Prevalence of Intestinal Parasites and Their Associated Factors among Diabetes Mellitus Patients at the University of Gondar Referral Hospital, Northwest Ethiopia
Background. Worldwide, more than one-sixth of the population is infected by intestinal parasites, of which the majority live in developing countries. On the other hand, the prevalence of diabetes mellitus has been increasing over recent decades in developing countries. Patients with diabetes mellitus encountered impaired immunity and suffer from the consequences of infection particularly intestinal parasitic infection. Objective. This study is aimed at assessing the prevalence of intestinal parasites and associated factors among diabetes mellitus patients at the University of Gondar Referral Hospital, Northwest Ethiopia. Methods and Materials. An institutional-based cross-sectional study was conducted at the University of Gondar Comprehensive Specialized Referral Hospital from February 15 to March 30, 2018. A total of 234 diabetes mellitus patients were enrolled. A systematic random sampling technique was used to select study participants. Sociodemographic and clinical data were collected using a semistructured questionnaire. A 5-gram stool sample was collected to identify parasitic infection using a direct wet mount and formal-ether concentration technique. Data was entered and analyzed by using SPSS version 20. A value of ≤0.05 was considered as statistically significant. Result. In the current study, the overall prevalence of intestinal parasite infection among diabetics was 45 (19.2%). The parasites identified in this study were Ascaris lumbricoides 15 (6.41%), Entamoeba histolytica/dispar 9 (3.85%), Hookworm 9 (3.85%), Schistosoma mansoni 7 (3%), Enterobius vermicularis 3 (1.3%), and Giardia lamblia 2 (0.9%). Poor educational background (; 95% CI (1.038, 12.65); ), poor hygiene and sanitation (; 95% CI (1.82, 12.07); ), and inappropriate latrine usage (; 95% CI (1.43, 20.56); ) were significantly associated with the prevalence of intestinal parasitic infection among diabetes mellitus patients. Conclusion. The overall prevalence of intestinal parasitic infection among diabetes mellitus patients was relatively high. There should be continued prevention, control, and management of intestinal parasitic infection in such a study population.
The Effectiveness of Varying Combination Ratios of A. cordifolia and M. indica against Field and Laboratory Strains of P. falciparum In Vitro
Background. Drug resistance in malaria is a global problem, with reports of Plasmodium parasites resistant to the current first-line antimalarial drug, artemisinin, expanding from Southeast Asia to Africa. There is therefore an urgent need to identify new drug candidates that will be effective against the existing malaria parasites. Drug combination therapy presents a myriad of advantages over monotherapy including delayed onset of resistance, potentiation, and synergism. This present study explored the effectiveness of combinations of aqueous extracts of Alchornea cordifolia (A. cordifolia) and Mangifera indica (M. indica) at clearing both laboratory and field isolates of P. falciparum. Methods. Synchronized ring stage cultures of field (FA08) and laboratory strains (NF54 and CamWT_C580Y) of P. falciparum were subjected to combinations of different concentrations and ratios of aqueous extracts of A. cordifolia and M. indica. The growth inhibition of the individual plant extracts and their combinatory effects were studied in vitro using SYBR Green I drug assay. Results. The A. cordifolia extract exhibited 50% inhibitory concentration (IC50) of 2.71, 7.80, and 3.56 μg/mL against the NF54, CamWT_C580Y, and FA08 parasite strains, respectively. Mangifera indica exhibited IC50 of 18.11, 20.08, and 10.23 μg/mL against the NF54, CamWT_C580Y, and FA08 parasite strains, respectively. Additive, synergistic and antagonistic interactions were observed at different combinations of A. cordifolia and M. indica extracts. Conclusion. A combination product containing A. cordifolia and M. indica has the potential to serve as an effective antimalarial as majority of the tested combinations of aqueous extracts of A. cordifolia and M. indica extracts exhibited synergistic effects in vitro against the NF54, CamWT_C580Y, and FA08 P. falciparum strains.
Five-Year Trend Analysis of Malaria Prevalence in Dembecha Health Center, West Gojjam Zone, Northwest Ethiopia: A Retrospective Study
Background. Malaria is a mosquito-borne infectious disease known to cause significant numbers of morbidities and mortalities across the globe. In Ethiopia, its transmission is generally seasonal and highly unstable due to variations in topography and rainfall patterns. Studying the trends in malaria in different setups is crucial for area-specific evidence-based interventions, informed decisions, and to track the effectiveness of malaria control programs. The trend in malaria infections in the area has not been documented. Hence, this study aimed to assess the five-year trend in microscopically confirmed malaria cases in Dembecha Health Center, West Gojjam Zone, Amhara national regional state, Ethiopia. Methods. A health facility-based retrospective study was conducted in Dembecha Health Center from February to April 2018. All microscopically confirmed malaria cases registered between 2011/12 and 2015/16 were carefully reviewed from laboratory record books and analyzed accordingly. Results. A total of 12,766 blood films were requested over the last five years at Dembecha Health Center. The number of microscopically confirmed malaria cases was 2086 (16.34%). The result showed a fluctuating yet declining trend in malaria infections. The highest number of cases was registered in 2012/13, while the lowest was in 2015/16. Males and age groups >20 constituted 58.9% and 44.2% of the patients, respectively, being the hardest hit by malaria in the area. Malaria existed in almost every month and seasons. Plasmodium falciparum was the predominant species. The highest peak of malaria infections was observed in the late transition (October-December) 799 (38.3%) and early transition (May-June) 589 (28.2%) seasons. Conclusion. Although the results indicate a fluctuating yet declining trend, the prevalence of confirmed malaria cases in the area remains alarming and indicates a major public health burden. Therefore, close monitoring and intervention measures to control malaria infections in the area and also to tackle the dominant species, Plasmodium falciparum, are necessitated accordingly.
In Vivo Antiplasmodial Activity of Entandrophragma cylindricum (Sprague) Sprague Ethyl Acetate Extract in Plasmodium berghei-Infected Mice
Background. One of the most dangerous Plasmodium species is Plasmodium falciparum. Hence, it causes a higher rate of mortality. The resistance of Plasmodium falciparum to the ACT (Artemisinin-based Combination Therapies) has led to the search for new antimalarial drugs. The purpose of this research was to assess the in vivo antiplasmodial activity of Entandrophragma cylindricum ethyl acetate extract to provide a scientific basis for the use of this medicinal plant to treat malaria. Methods. Entandrophragma cylindricum stem bark powder was macerated in ethyl acetate to obtain the extract. The extract liquid filtrate was concentrated, evaporated and dry using a Rotavapor. The Peter and Rane test were used for the suppressive and curative antiplasmodial activities at different doses (125, 250 and 500 mg/kg). A positive and negative control groups were administered chloroquine (5 mg/kg) and 10% hypromelose, respectively. To assess the parasitemia of the mice a thin blood smear was made. Results. The ethyl acetate extract completely (100%) inhibited the development of P. berghei in the suppressive test at the dose of 500 mg/kg while that of the curative test was inhibited at 95%. The extract-treated group (500 mg/kg) and (Chloroquine (5 mg/kg) group all survived. The negative control group recorded a 100% mortality rate. Conclusion. The present study provides scientific confirmation on the use of E. cylindricum stem bark as an antiplasmodial remedy. However, the identification of the mode of action and the purification of the active compounds are necessary for further studies.
Prevalence, Intensity, and Associated Factors of Schistosoma mansoni among School Children in Northwest Ethiopia
Background. Schistosomiasis is one of the Neglected Tropical Diseases in Ethiopia, and its burden may show variations from time to time across different regions. Thus, this study was aimed at determining the prevalence, intensity, and associated risk factors of Schistosoma mansoni (S. mansoni) among schoolchildren in Northwest Ethiopia. Methods. A school-based cross-sectional study was conducted. A multistage sampling technique was used to select the study participants. Stool specimens were collected and examined using two-slide Kato-Katz method. Data were analyzed using SPSS version 20 software. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to identify risk factors. values less than 0.05 were taken as statistically significant. Result. A total of 786 schoolchildren were participated in this study. The prevalence of S. mansoni was 33.5%. The mean egg count of the parasite among the infected study participants was 523.665 eggs per gram (epg) of stool. Thirty-seven, 42, and 21 percent of the study participant’s infection were due to light, moderate, and heavy infection intensities, respectively. Age of 8-11 years old (, ), 5th-8th grade level (, ), residing in Chuahit District (, ), and using untreated water for domestic supply (, ) were found to be risk factors for S. mansoni infection. Conclusion. High prevalence of S. mansoni and relatively higher proportion of moderate intensity of infection in this study imply that schistosomiasis is still one of the major public health problems in Northwest Ethiopia. It is also highlighted that study sites, provision of water supply, age, and grade level of the schoolchildren were identified as a risk factors for the disease.