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Journal of Parasitology Research publishes papers in all areas of basic and applied parasitology, including host-parasite relationships, parasitic diseases, disease vectors, and the social and economic issues around the impact of parasites.
Journal of Parasitology Research maintains an Editorial Board of practicing researchers from around the world, to ensure manuscripts are handled by editors who are experts in the field of study.
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The First Report of Ruminant Fascioliasis in Sabah, East Malaysia
Ruminant fascioliasis is a neglected yet important tropical zoonotic disease that affects both the livestock and humans. The disease has a worldwide distribution, and Malaysia is one of the countries that face problems related to this parasite. These retrospective studies were conducted in Makmal Diagnosa Veterinar Kota Kinabalu (MDVKK) and Sabah Meat Technology Centre (SMTC), Kinarut over a period of eleven years (2008–2018). For MDVKK, the overall occurrence of fascioliasis was 24.9%. Out of 769 cattle’s and buffaloes’ faecal samples submitted, Fasciola spp ova were detected in 189 of the samples. A total of 2297 cattle, buffaloes, and goats were slaughtered at SMTC over that period, and 21 livers were condemned due to fascioliasis, giving the total occurrence of 0.91%. This investigation provides information on the occurrence of ruminant fascioliasis in Sabah, East Malaysia. The results from this study highlight the alarming incidence of fascioliasis and the urgent need for action to control this neglected tropical disease in East Malaysia.
The Prevalence of Malaria among Children in Ethiopia: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis
Background. Malaria is one of the most public health important and life-threatening parasitic infections caused by the protozoan parasite. Since children are immunologically naive to the malaria parasite, they are the main vulnerable groups. During malaria infection, they might have a complication of anemia, cerebral malaria, coma, respiratory distress, and a decrease in cognitive and behavioral improvement. Therefore, this review was aimed at determining the pooled prevalence of malaria among children in Ethiopia. Methods. The current systematic review and meta-analysis were conducted based on the guideline of Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses statement guideline. Electronic bibliographic databases such as Google Scholar, PubMed, and Science Direct were used for searching relevant literature. Besides, the Joanna Briggs Institute Meta-Analysis of Statistics Assessment and Review Instrument (JBI-MAStARI) was used for critical appraisal of studies. Using the STATA 14 software, the pooled Meta logistic regression was computed to present the pooled prevalence with a 95% confidence interval (CI). Result. The overall estimated pooled prevalence of malaria among children in Ethiopia was 9.07 (95% CI: 6.32, 11.82). Subgroup analysis based on malaria signs and symptoms showed that the pooled prevalence of malaria among asymptomatic and symptomatic children was 6.67% (95% CI: 0.36, 12.98) and 27.17% (95% CI: 18.59, 35.76), respectively. Conclusion. The findings revealed a high prevalence of malaria among children in Ethiopia. As a result, still there is a need of improving and rechecking the existing malaria prevention and control measures of the country.
Enteropathogenic Bacterial and Intestinal Parasitic Infections among Asymptomatic Food Handlers in Rangsit University Canteens, Central Thailand
Food handlers play an important role in the transmission of foodborne diseases. 108 asymptomatic food handlers work in RSU canteens and have never been checked for intestinal bacteria and parasites, which might be a potential source of infection for customers. This study is aimed at estimating the prevalence of enteropathogenic bacterial and intestinal parasitic infections among food handlers in Rangsit University canteens, central Thailand. A total of 79 food handlers were enrolled, and each provided one stool sample (response rate of 73.2%). Females comprised 93.7% of study participants, and the largest age group was 41–50 years (34.2%). The prevalence of enteropathogenic bacteria in stool cultures was 2.5%, and only Aeromonas spp. were detected. The pathogenic protozoa Giardia duodenalis was detected in 1.3% of samples, and nonpathogenic protozoa was found in 11.4%. No helminths were found in any samples. Approximately 80% of food handlers demonstrated good hygiene practices, including regular hand washing after visiting the toilet, regular hand washing when preparing food, using soap when washing hands, wearing uniforms/gowns, practicing correct hand washing techniques, and having short fingernails. However, the results showed a lack of personal hygiene training and routine medical care (>50% of samples). Stronger intervention would help to eliminate future infections.
Treatment Outcome of Severe Malaria and Associated Factors among Adults Admitted in Arba Minch General Hospital, Southern Nation Nationality and People’s Region, Ethiopia
Introduction. Malaria is a protozoan disease transmitted by the bite of infected female Anopheles mosquitoes. Progression to severe and fatal disease is largely but not entirely confined to Plasmodium falciparum infections. Malaria is a major public health problem in Ethiopia despite relatively low malaria prevalence compared to most other malaria-endemic countries in Africa. In Ethiopia, a nationwide report during 2015 showed that the total number of deaths associated with malaria was 1561. Methods. A retrospective cross-sectional study was conducted in Arba Minch General Hospital on February 2019. Data were collected from a patient record who was admitted with severe malaria in the past four years from Sept. 2015 to Aug. 2018. Results. This study included a total of 387 patients with severe malaria. The mortality rate associated with severe malaria in the year between 2015 and 2018 at Arba Minch General Hospital was 5.7%. Comorbidity, impaired consciousness, and acidosis were significantly associated with mortality, at significant level of . Conclusions. Comorbidity, impaired consciousness, and acidosis were found to be poor prognostic indicators for patients with severe malaria.
Cystic Echinococcosis: Knowledge, Attitude, and Practices (KAP) among Surgically Operated Cases in Fars Province, Southern Iran
Introduction. Cystic echinococcosis (CE) is a neglected zoonotic disease caused by Echinococcus granulosus with major health and economic burden. The information on how the community members perceive the disease is crucial in order to recommend an effective preventive and control plan. The current study is aimed at finding out knowledge, attitude, and practices (KAP) of surgically operated cases of hydatid cyst in educational hospitals of Shiraz in Fars Province, southern Iran, toward the CE. Methods. A cross-sectional survey was conducted among 180 CE patients who underwent surgery due to CE. Using a well-designed questionnaire, a telephone-based survey was carried out to collect the data. The contents of the questionnaire included basic personal information and questions related to the participants’ knowledge, attitude, and behavioral patterns toward CE. Univariate and then multivariate linear regression analyses were used to identify factors associated with the KAP. Unstandardized regression coefficients (β) and odds ratios (ORs) and their 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were used to quantify the associations between variables and KAP. Results. A total of 180 CE patients with a mean age of 35.64 (±17.59) years were recruited. The mean score of participant’s knowledge was 8.7 (, range: 0-17), whereas these scores were 1.3 (, range 0-2) for attitude and 1.2 (, range 0-4) for practice. Findings of the study demonstrated that 20 of the participants (11.1%) had good knowledge towards CE, 82 (45.6%) demonstrated a positive attitude, and 57 (47.5%) without having dogs demonstrated a good practice towards CE (), while from 60 dog owners, only 7 (11.6%) participants demonstrated good practice (score 3 and 4/4). Factors that were associated with knowledge were age (, value = 0.001) and educational level (, value = 0.001), where higher age was associated with lower knowledge and also higher educational levels were associated with higher knowledge regarding hydatid cyst. Regarding attitude, only living location had a significant association with participants’ attitude where those who were living in urban areas demonstrating a more positive attitude towards CE (, value = 0.022). The practice of the participants was grouped into dog owners and participants with no dogs, in which among participants who did not own a dog, those living in urban areas demonstrating weaker practice towards CE (, value>0.001). Moreover, a lack of counseling of patients after the surgery on how to prevent reinfection was noticed. Conclusion. Findings of the study revealed that the CE patients in southern Iran had poor knowledge and attitude toward the disease, and their practice may help in maintaining the disease in the community. Health education is highly needed to increase community awareness and to prevent and control this neglected parasitic infection in the area.
Cryptosporidium Infection and Associated Risk Factors among Cattle in the Central Region of Ghana
Cryptosporidium species infects a wide number of animals including livestock all over the world. The current study was done to determine the prevalence and risk factors of Cryptosporidium infection among cattle in the Central Region of Ghana. Two hundred and eighty-seven (287) faecal samples were randomly collected from animals on eight cattle farms in four districts across two agroecological zones. A commercial enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay kit (CoproELISA, Savyon® Diagnostics Ltd., Israel) for Cryptosporidium was used in the detection of Cryptosporidium antigens in faecal samples. Characteristics of the animals such as age, sex, and location, as well as consistency of faecal samples, were collected. Pearson’s chi-square or Fisher’s exact test was used to determine the association between explanatory variables and Cryptosporidium infection while a logistic regression model was also used to determine the risk of infection. The overall prevalence of Cryptosporidium infection was 23.7% (95% CI, 18.7-28.6). Prevalence was significantly higher () among cattle aged 12-month old and above compared to those under 12 months of age. Among the four districts in the study area, Cape Coast metropolis recorded a significantly higher prevalence (60.5%; CI, 49.3-71.8), () compared to the other three. Furthermore, a significant association was observed between the consistency of faecal samples and Cryptosporidium infection (). The prevalence of Cryptosporidium infection was also significantly higher among cattle from the coastal savanna zone (26.9%; 95% CI, 21.0-32.8) compared to those from the semideciduous forest area (). Cattle in the forest zone had a lower risk of being infected with the parasite compared to those from the coastal savanna zone (OR 0.408; 95% CI, 0.182-0.915). In conclusion, Cryptosporidium was prevalent among cattle in the Central Region of Ghana. A higher prevalence of Cryptosporidium infection occurred in older animals and among animals in the coastal agroecological zone. The area of location and age of animals were identified as risk factors for Cryptosporidium infection in the Central Region of Ghana.