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Journal of Parasitology Research publishes papers in all areas of basic and applied parasitology, including host-parasite relationships, parasitic diseases, disease vectors, and the social and economic issues around the impact of parasites.
Journal of Parasitology Research maintains an Editorial Board of practicing researchers from around the world, to ensure manuscripts are handled by editors who are experts in the field of study.
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Enteroparasitism in Hard-to-Reach Community Dwellers: A Cross-Sectional Study in Ga West Municipality in Ghana
Ga West Municipality in Ghana is predominantly rural with about forty-eight hard-to-reach communities. Several infectious diseases such as Buruli ulcer, tuberculosis, yaws, schistosomiasis, and malaria are prevalent in the municipality. However, the prevalence and characteristics of enteroparasites in the municipality are unknown. Therefore, this cross-sectional study determined the prevalence of enteroparasites in these hard-to-reach communities. Samples were collected from five communities, namely, Opah, Otuaplem, Dedeman, Onyansana, and Manchie. A total of 538 stool samples were collected from the community dwellers. Each sample was examined with eosin-saline wet preparation and formol-ether concentration technique. Body mass index, haemoglobin, and albumin concentrations were used to assess nutritional status. Seven different parasite species were identified in 178 community dwellers (33.1% prevalence (95% CI: 0.29–0.37)). The individual prevalence of the identified parasites was Schistosoma mansoni (13.4%), Entamoeba histolytica (7.2%), Ascaris lumbricoides (6.9%), Giardia lamblia (5.0%), hookworm (4.8%), Strongyloides stercoralis (4.8%), and Balantidium coli (1.6%). Among the 178 parasitized individuals, 68.0% were singly infected while 31.5% had dual parasitism. Significantly higher infections were associated with Onyansana dwellers (), participants aged 16–20 years (), unmarried participants (), those without formal education (), and crop farmers (). However, among the Akan tribe (), Christians (), and participants with higher incomes (), infections were found to be lower. Compared to monoparasitism, dual parasitism was significantly associated with underweight (17.8 vs. 20.3 kg/m2), anaemia (7.7 vs. 9.8 g/dL), and malnutrition (27.6 vs. 31.9 g/L of albumin concentration). These findings underscore the fact that the Ga West Municipality is heavily burdened with different species of enteroparasites. Therefore, education on personal hygiene to reduce parasitic infections must be intensified while implementing regular mass deworming exercise in the municipality.
Knowledge and Experiences of Health Professionals in the Peripheral Management of Leishmaniasis in Morocco (ELHajeb)
Background. Morocco hopes to eliminate leishmaniases by 2030. These diseases exist in cutaneous and visceral forms and constitute a serious public health problem. The fight against these parasitoses is carried out within the framework of a national program to control leishmaniases, which offers free treatment. However, the screening rate in public health structures does not exceed 35%. Objective. To determine the knowledge and experience of the social actors directly involved in the fight against leishmaniasis to contribute to analyse and understand the factors of this underreporting and to draw scientific recommendations to improve screening and control activities. Methods. Using a self-administered questionnaire, we conducted an exploratory survey during April and May 2019 among all health professionals working in public health structures in the province of ELHajeb in central Morocco. Results. We found that most of the health professionals had good knowledge about the clinical signs of each form of leishmaniasis, but they had erroneous information about the true vector of the disease, the reservoirs, and the mode of transmission. 76% recognized the national leishmaniases control program and only 17% received continuing education. 85% of these professionals focused on the curative aspects of the program. 47% stated that patients do not adhere to the antileishmaniasis treatment, and 25% stated that the population uses the concept of “Hboub of Chniwla” to refer to cutaneous leishmaniasis. Conclusion. The study concluded that the operationalization of the activities of the leishmaniases control program recognizes some weaknesses which explain the underscreening of cases. Improvement of this situation requires the implementation of continuous training programs for caregivers and awareness-raising programs for citizens which should focus on the mode of transmission, preventive measures against reservoirs, sand flies bites, and recognition of lesions using the popular names of the disease as a starting point.
Antimalarial Activity of Ethyl Acetate Extract and Fraction of Bidens pilosa against Plasmodium berghei (ANKA)
Background. Malaria is one of the most critical diseases causing about 219 million cases worldwide in developing countries. The spread and development of resistance against chemical antimalarial drugs is one of the major problems associated with malaria control. The present study was to investigate the antimalarial efficacy of ethyl acetate extract and one fraction of Bidens pilosa in vivo in order to support the usage of this plant by traditional healers to treat malaria. Methods. The extracts were prepared by maceration of B. pilosa leaf powder in ethyl acetate. The liquid filtrate of the extract and the best in vitro antiplasmodial fraction using HPLC were concentrated and evaporated using a rotavapor under vacuum to dryness. The antimalarial activity of B. pilosa plant products were evaluated in vivo against Plasmodium berghei infected mice according to the Peter and Rane test. The antimalarial efficacy of the a selected crude extract (ethyl acetate extract) was evaluated at 125, 250, and 500 mg/kg, while a selected fraction from ethyl acetate extract (fraction 12) was evaluated at 62.5 and 125 mg/kg. Blood from experimental animals was collected to assess hematological parameters. Results. The crude extract of ethyl acetate and fraction 12 demonstrated 100% in vivo parasite suppressive activity at doses of 500 mg/kg and 125 mg/kg, respectively, for the crude extract and fraction 12. The mice treated with 250 and 500 mg/kg had their parasitemia (intraerythrocytic phase of P. Berghei) drop considerably, disappearing by the 8th day in mice receiving 500 mg/kg. The ethyl acetate extract of B. pilosa, fraction 12 showed an even higher antiplasmodial activity. By the 5th day of the experiment, the treatment led to a modification of hematological parameters in mice. The chloroquine (5 mg/kg), fraction 12 (125 mg/kg), and the crude extract (500 mg/kg) groups all survived the 30 days of the experiment, while the negative control group registered 100% of the deaths. Conclusion. This study scientifically supports the use of Bidens pilosa leaves in the traditional treatment of malaria. However, the mode of action and in vivo toxicity of the plant still need to be assessed.
Clinical Characteristics and Management of the Hydatid Cyst of the Liver: A Study from a Tertiary Care Center in Nepal
A hydatid cyst of the liver is a significant yet neglected public health problem in Nepal. The present study was carried out to evaluate the demographic characteristics, clinical presentations, and management of the patients of the hydatid cyst of the liver in the setting of a developing country. It was a retrospective, descriptive analysis of 53 patients admitted in the department of surgery with the diagnosis of hydatid cyst of the liver based on clinical manifestations, imaging studies, or serology between 2016 and 2019. The median age of the patients was 36 years, with the age group of 25-45 years being the most commonly affected (23, 43.4%). 58.5% of the patients were female. Abdominal pain (49, 92.5%) and a palpable liver (17, 32.1%) were the most common complaint and physical finding in our study population, respectively. Abdominal ultrasonography and computed tomography scan were the major imaging studies used to establish a diagnosis. A unilocular and anechoic cystic lesion was the most frequent imaging finding. The right lobe of the liver harbored the cysts in the maximum number of patients. Surgery was the preferred modality of treatment (23, 43.4%), with pericystectomy being the most common form of surgical intervention. The hydatid cyst of the liver is a common cause of morbidity in Nepal. Clinical evaluation supplemented by imaging studies is required for diagnosis, and surgery remains the treatment of choice in most cases. To explain the epidemiological pattern of the disease, multicentric studies involving a larger sample of patients should be conducted.
Larvicidal Effect of Vorticella microstoma (Ehrenberg, 1830) on Mosquito Larvae, and Morphological Changes under Induced Environmental Conditions
Development of microbiota assemblage usually occurs in all most all domestic and peridomestic mosquito breeding habitats. There may be parasitic, epibiont, pathogenic, or even predatory species among this biota, and to investigate their potential against the mosquito population is worth studying. This may contribute to formulating environmentally agreeable approaches in controlling mosquitoes which is a current need. Vorticella spp. is a peritrich ciliate, and its trophont stage has become epibiont to certain biota. Further, their existence in seasonal water bodies that dry off during drought in tropical weather conditions is not known. Therefore, the potential of the larvicidal effect of Vorticella microstoma on different species of mosquito larvae was studied. We found that V. microstoma causes the 100% death of the third instar larvae of Culex tritaeniorhynchus (Giles, 1901) within 48 h of exposure. In contrast to that, this species did not cause any mortality to Aedes albopictus (Skuse, 1894) and Aedes aegypti (Linnaeus in Hasselquist, 1762) mosquito larvae in repeated trials. The dynamics of polymorphism of V. microstoma was studied under induced environmental conditions. V. microstoma remained as trophont stage throughout at room temperature (°C). When the temperature was reduced to 6°C, V. microstoma settled in the cyst stage. Evidently, V. microstoma is a good biocontrol agent of Culex species mosquito larvae, and they able to overcome drought periods in cyst forms. The findings of this study would be considered as the first step for a new avenue to work on environmentally agreeable manner in reducing the Culex spp. mosquito populations.
Activity of Combinations of Antioxidants and Anthelmintic Drugs against the Adult Stage of Schistosoma mansoni
Schistosomiasis remains a major neglected tropical disease. The treatment and control of schistosomiasis rely on a single drug, praziquantel (PZQ). Despite its efficacy, treatment with PZQ presents some major drawbacks including an inability of the chemotherapy to reverse disease-induced fibrosis and the prospect of the emergence of drug resistance. Here, we investigated a novel therapeutic approach with antioxidant biomolecules in combination with PZQ against the adult developmental stage of Schistosoma mansoni and oviposition in vitro, given that this therapeutic approach achieved synergistic/additive activity against larval schistosomes. The antioxidants curcumin and oxadiazole per se exhibited antischistosomal activity against adult worms leading to severe morphological alterations and death. Additionally, the antioxidant flavone combined with vandetanib or imatinib improved antischistosomal activity against adult forms. By contrast, however, these antioxidant-anthelmintic combinations were not as effective against adults in comparison to larval schistosomes. Nevertheless, the antioxidants alone or combined with drugs inhibited oviposition.