Journal of Parasitology Research
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Acceptance rate30%
Submission to final decision143 days
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CiteScore2.400
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Effective Treatment of Chronic Cough with Tinidazole as the Newest Antiprotozoa against Lophomonas blattarum

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Journal of Parasitology Research publishes papers in all areas of basic and applied parasitology, including host-parasite relationships, parasitic diseases, disease vectors, and the social and economic issues around the impact of parasites.

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Journal of Parasitology Research maintains an Editorial Board of practicing researchers from around the world, to ensure manuscripts are handled by editors who are experts in the field of study.

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Research Article

Glossina pallidipes Density and Trypanosome Infection Rate in Arba Minch Zuria District of Gamo Zone, Southern Ethiopia

Background. African trypanosomosis is a disease of both animals and humans resulting from infection with parasitaemic protozoa of the genus Trypanosoma transmitted mainly by the tsetse flies (Glossina species). The disease has been reported in different parts of the country. However, information on the apparent density and trypanosome infection rates of the vectors is very limited in the Southern part of Ethiopia. Therefore, this study was conducted to estimate the apparent density, infection rate of trypanosomes in Glossina pallidipes, and the trypanosome species involved in Arba Minch Zuria district of Southern Ethiopia. Methods. A cross-sectional study was conducted from January to June 2018 in two purposely selected kebeles of Arbaminch Zuria district and in the escarpments of Nech Sar National Park of Southern Ethiopia. For entomological survey, a total of 40 standard NGU traps were deployed around the watering and grazing areas. A total of 300 fresh Glossina pallidipes were examined for trypanosome infection using a dissection procedure as described by the FAO Training manual for tsetse control personnel. Results. The study revealed the presence of only one Glossina species, known as Glossina pallidipes, and biting flies including Stomoxys and Tabanus. A total of 2176 flies were caught of which 1803 (82.86%) belong to Glossina pallidipes and the remaining 373 (17.14%) were biting flies. The overall apparent density of Glossina pallidipes and biting flies in the study area were 15.03 fly/trap/day (F/T/D) and 3.11 F/T/D, respectively. Relatively higher Glossina pallidipes and biting flies, respectively, were caught in a wood-grass land (15.87 F/T/D and 3.69 F/T/D) and riverine forest (15.13 F/T/D and 3.42 F/T/D) than bush land vegetation types (13.87 F/T/D and 1.76 F/T/D). The overall trypanosome infection rate of Glossina pallidipes was 17.67% (53/300). Two trypanosome species, namely, Trypanosoma congolense (66.04%) and Trypanosoma vivax (33.96%), were responsible for Glossina pallidipes infection in the study area. Trypanosome infection rate was significantly higher in female G. pallidipes than in male (, ). Significantly, higher trypanosome infection rate was observed in flies older than 20 days (, ) and in hunger stage 1 flies (, ). Glossina pallidipes infection was significantly higher in and around park grazing areas (, ) and wood-grass land vegetation type (, ). Conclusion. The current study revealed high apparent density and trypanosome infection in Glossina pallidipes in Arba Minch Zuria district of Southern Ethiopia. So, this study warrants the need for strengthening both vector and parasite control strategies in the study area.

Review Article

Prevalence of Cystic Echinococcosis Genotypes in Iranian Animals: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

Background. Cystic echinococcosis is considered a public health problem that if left untreated can have dangerous consequences for the person. The disease is caused by Echinococcus granulosus sensu lato larvae. The main risk factors for this parasitic infection are habitat, direct contact with dogs, use of raw vegetables, and use of unwashed vegetables. The most important factors affecting the prevalence of HCD are economic, occupational, agricultural, educational, and factors related to public health and cultural habits of the general public in that geographical area. Objectives. The purpose of this study was to investigate the prevalence of the types of cystic echinococcosis genotypes (E. granulosus sensu stricto (G1-G3) and E. Canadensis (G6 and G7)) in livestock in Iran. Method. This systematic review was conducted, using Medline/PubMed, Scopus, Web of Sciences, and Google Scholar databases, to identify studies of cystic echinococcosis in animals published from 2010 to April 14, 2021. Finally, 28 studies were selected for meta-analysis, which was analyzed using Stata software version 14. The cystic echinococcosis prevalence with 95% confidence intervals of animals was synthesized using the random effect model. Heterogeneity was evaluated and in cases where the 2 index was higher than 75%, subgroup analysis was performed according to the types of animals. Result. The highest prevalence of cystic echinococcosis infection was related to G1 genotype ( (95% )) and the prevalence was related to G2 genotype ((95% )). The results of the subgroup analysis showed that in the G1 genotype the highest prevalence was observed in Goats and Buffaloes with (95% ) and (95% ), in the G3 and G6 genotypes the highest prevalence was observed in camels with (95% ), and (95% ), respectively. Conclusion. The cystic echinococcosis genotypes vary from region to region or from country to country and also from host to host, and according to the results, it should always be stopped in areas where the prevalence of such genomes suitable for livestock as well as human food sources to prevent infection of livestock and thus human exposure to cystic echinococcosis.

Research Article

Antifilarial Activity of the Methanolic Extract of Indigofera tinctoria (Fabaceae) on Bovine Parasites (Onchocerca ochengi)

Onchocerciasis is a major public health problem caused by Onchocerca volvulus parasite and transmitted to humans via black flies (simulium) bites. The control of onchocerciasis relies much on the use of the chemical drug ivermectin, which is only effective against microfilariae and has led to drug resistance. This study was carried out to assess the in vitro antifilarial activity of methanolic extract of Indigofera tinctoria and its most active fractions on adult male O. ochengi worm, the closest model to O. volvulus, after 48 h and 72 h of treatment. Worms’ viability was determined biochemically by MTT/formazan colorimetry assay. The promising plant extract’s acute and subacute oral toxicity were evaluated on both mice and rats. The result revealed a highest antifilarial activity of the methanolic extract () compared to ivermectin () after 72 h of treatment. Out of the eight (08), chromatographic fractions screened, only three (03) fractions (C, F, and G) revealed the highest anti-Onchocerca activity after 72 h of treatment. An oral administration of the plant extract at a single dose of 2000 mg/kg did not produce any toxicity in mice. After repeated daily administration of methanolic extract of I. tinctoria (250 mg/kg, 500 mg/kg, and 1000 mg/kg) for 28 days, no significant changes in body weight, biochemical, and haematological parameters was observed. Histopathological examination of organs did not reveal any sign of alteration. The phytochemical analysis of the methanolic extract of I. tinctoria revealed the presence of various phenolic compounds. Therefore, this study demonstrated the potential antifilarial activity of Indigofera tinctoria and offered an alternative to treating onchocerciasis. Moreover, further studies could be developed in promising new antifilarial sources of the isolated compound and in vivo antifilarial activity of Indigofera tinctoria in the animal model needs to be studied.

Research Article

Study of the Use of Antinematode Drugs, Mebendazole and Pyrantel, in Galicia (Spain) from 2016 to 2020

To the best of our knowledge, there is no study on the use of drugs focused on the consumption of antinematode drugs in any region of the world. In the present study, we analyzed and evaluated the use of mebendazole and pyrantel in the provinces of Galicia (Spain), as well as described the variability of the consumption of both drugs between these provinces from 2016 to 2020. A descriptive, cross-sectional, and retrospective study of the consumption of these drugs, expressed in defined daily dose per 1000 inhabitants per day (DHD), was carried out. The DHD values for both drugs were small, although clearly higher, both on average and in variability, in the case of mebendazole. The difference in the mean DHD between both drugs and the geographical differences observed was statistically significant. The seasonal differences were statistically significant for both active principles, with lower values in summer. The active principle most consumed in all the provinces and years was mebendazole. The main consequence of the excessive use of this drug compared to pyrantel may be the increased risk of the development of resistance and of therapeutic failure, as well as the consequent limitation of pharmacological options in the future.

Research Article

Investigation on Prevalence of Canine Trypanosomiasis in the Conservation Areas of Bwindi-Mgahinga and Queen Elizabeth in Western Uganda

Nowadays, despite the instauration of several control strategies, animal trypanosomiasis continues to be reported all over Uganda. Few canine African trypanosomiasis (CAT) studies have been carried out, yet dogs are known Trypanosoma reservoirs that share identical home ranges with livestock and serve as parasite link between livestock and humans. This study evaluates the prevalence of CAT in dogs in the Bwindi-Mgahinga and Queen Elizabeth conservation areas. This information will be useful to evaluate the possible role of dogs in the transmission cycle of Trypanosoma species in livestock and wild animals. Trypanosome tests using microhematocrit centrifugation/dark ground microscopy technique (MHCT) followed by conventional polymerase chain reaction (cPCR) were performed in blood samples collected from identified indigenous dogs (). Four (3.23%) out of 124 dogs were positive for CAT. One dog was positive with Trypanosoma congolense and three with T. vivax. There was no significant statistical difference in CAT prevalence rate in relation to dog’s age, sex, and site (). This study reports what we believe is the first time detection of T. congolense and T. vivax in the indigenous dogs found in the Bwindi-Mgahinga and Queen Elizabeth conservation areas in western Uganda. The noticed T. congolense and T. vivax could be responsible for both canine and animal trypanosomiasis and represent a serious threat to the livestock industry. Therefore, there is a need for continuous trypanosomiasis surveillance and integrated management in contiguity to wildlife reserves.

Research Article

Current Status of Fasciolosis of Goat in Sylhet, Bangladesh: An Integrated Morphomolecular Study

Epidemiological information and proper identification of Fasciola species present in Bangladesh are important for control. This study was aimed at determining the prevalence of liver fluke infection of goats in Sylhet, Bangladesh, and identifying those using integrated morphometric and molecular techniques. A total of 260 slaughtered goats (Capra hircus) were examined, and flukes were collected from infected liver using sterilized forceps. Fasciolosis prevalence in goats was 35.38% (92/260) across all age and sex categories. Female goats were found more infected (37.14%, 65/175) than male goats (31.76%, 27/85), while infection rate was found higher in young animals (37.91%, 69/182) compared to adults (29.48% 23/78). Infection rate was observed higher in rainy season (52.96%, 45/85), followed by winter (27.38%, 26/95) and summer (26.25%, 21/80). Collected flukes were examined by light microscopy after being stained with Semichon’s acetocarmine, and sequences of mtDNA Cox1 genes were obtained. Ten adult flukes were measured,  mm in length and  mm in width. Based on morphometric features especially branching of the testis and body length/body width ratios (), the flukes were primarily identified as Fasciola gigantica. Amplicon sequences were compared by BLAST and the cox1 sequences showed 97.1-99.3% similarity with the reference sequences (F. gigantica and Fasciola sp.) from GenBank. In this study, we found a considerable prevalence of fascioliasis in goats, and F. gigantica was solely identified with variation. To control these parasites and prevent potential public health risks, appropriate control techniques must be developed.

Journal of Parasitology Research
 Journal metrics
See full report
Acceptance rate30%
Submission to final decision143 days
Acceptance to publication18 days
CiteScore2.400
Journal Citation Indicator-
Impact Factor-
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