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Journal of Parasitology Research publishes papers in all areas of basic and applied parasitology, including host-parasite relationships, parasitic diseases, disease vectors, and the social and economic issues around the impact of parasites.
Journal of Parasitology Research maintains an Editorial Board of practicing researchers from around the world, to ensure manuscripts are handled by editors who are experts in the field of study.
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Antischistosomal Activity of Zingiber officinale, Piper nigrum, and Coriandrum sativum Aqueous Plant Extracts on Hamster Infected with Schistosoma mansoni
Schistosomiasis continues to affect the health and quality of life of millions of people around the world. Schistosomiasis has been ranked the second disease after malaria in terms of importance as a targeted tropical disease. Praziquantel (PZQ) is the only drug approved by the World Health Organization (WHO) for the treatment of schistosomiasis. Being the only drug, parasite resistance to this drug has developed. Therefore, the search for new alternatives has been the goal of many researchers. In this study, the effects of aqueous extracts of Zingiber officinale, Piper nigrum, and Coriandrum sativum on Schistosoma mansoni infected golden hamsters (Egyptian strain) were evaluated in vitro and in vivo at different doses of 500, 250, 125, 62.5, and 31.25 μg/ml. In vitro, adult worms of S. mansoni were tested in RPMI-1640 medium for 48 hrs. The results showed that the concentrations 500, 250, and 125 μg/ml of Zingiber officinale and Piper nigrum caused dead of 100% of adult worms within 6 and 12 hrs of incubation, respectively. Although, aqueous extract of Coriandrum sativum at concentrations 500, 250, and 125 μg/ml resulted dead of 100% parasites after 12 to 24 hrs of incubation. In conclusion, Zingiber officinale and Piper nigrum showed efficacy against schistosomiasis in both in vitro and biological experiments of Egyptian schistosome strain, while Coriandrum sativum gave less effective results than the previous ones. Therefore, Zingiber officinale and Piper nigrum may become an innovative treatment for schistosomiasis.
Morphometrical and Molecular Characterization of Oesophagostomum columbianum (Chabertiidae: Oesophagostominae) and Haemonchus contortus (Trichostrongylidae: Haemonchinae) Isolated from Goat (Capra hircus) in Sylhet, Bangladesh
This study was aimed at describing two (2) intestinal nematodes from naturally infected native breed of goats (Capra hircus) in Bangladesh, identified as Oesophagostomum columbianum (Curtice, 1890) Stossich 1899 and Haemonchus contortus (Rudolphi, 1803) Cobb, 1898. The identification was made based on morphometric features and was confirmed by amplifying internal transcribed spacer (ITS) and cytochrome c oxidase (cox1) gene. Well-developed lateral alae, distinct cervical papillae anteriorly to esophageal expansion, and male spicule length (0.73-0.79 mm, ) were characteristically observed in O. columbianum. At the same time, male spicule length (0.40-0.46 mm, ) and position of female vulvar flap (4.30-4.54 mm from posterior end, ) were observed in H. contortus. DNA sequence homology of the ITS and cox1 gene of both specimens revealed the same results, showing similarity to the GenBank sequences of O. columbianum (GenBank No. KC715827; JX188470) and H. contortus (GenBank No. KJ724377; HQ389229). Phylogenetic analysis computed by maximum livelihood (ML) from the ITS nucleotide sequences revealed that the O. columbianum and H. contortus isolates identified in this study were clustered in the same clade with isolates from China and Iran, respectively. This study, for the first time, illustrates the characteristics of O. columbianum and H. contortus in Bangladesh, combining both morphological and molecular data. The universal primer-based polymerase chain reaction (PCR) protocol could be an economical and efficient option for researchers from poor resource settings for precise identification of nematodes. The information generated in this study may contribute to formulating effective control strategies against these nematodes.
A Five-Year Trend of Intestinal Parasite Prevalence among Students Attending Clinic at University of Gondar, Northwest Ethiopia
Background. Intestinal parasitic infections are the cause of the highest worldwide infectious disease and the major public health problems in developing countries. Among the cases, children and younger age are at high risk and the major victims. The aim of this study was to assess the five-year trend of intestinal parasite prevalence among University of Gondar students. Method. A retrospective cross-sectional study was conducted to assess the trend of intestinal parasite prevalence among students at the University of Gondar. The data was collected from students who have studied at the University of Gondar from 2014 to 2018 and who visited the student’s clinic and had recorded results of stool sample diagnosis on the laboratory logbook. Stool specimens were examined using direct saline wet mount methods. The data was analyzed by using SPSS version 20 software, and value < 0.05 was considered as statistically significant. Moreover, chi-square was used to assess the association of different variables. Result. During the study period, a total of 6244 stool samples were requested for intestinal parasite diagnosis and it was found that 2850 specimens were positive for intestinal parasites, representing an overall prevalence of 45.6% with a fluctuating trend. Ten different parasites were reported with Entamoeba histolytica/dispar (20.3%) and Giardia lamblia (8.2%), the most frequently detected intestinal parasites. The prevalence of intestinal parasitic infections was higher in males (35.4%) than females (10.2%) (). Conclusions. Intestinal parasitic infection was highly prevalent, and there were fluctuations in the prevalence of intestinal parasites from 2014 to 2018. Environmental sanitation improvement and health education schemes at the University of Gondar can be considered quite indispensable for the prevention and control of parasitic infections in the area.
Human Intestinal Parasitic Infections: Prevalence and Associated Risk Factors among Elementary School Children in Merawi Town, Northwest Ethiopia
Background. Intestinal parasitic infection is still common in Ethiopia. Periodic evaluation of the current status of human intestinal parasitic infections (HIPIs) is a prerequisite to controlling these health threats. This study is aimed at assessing the prevalence and determinant factors of HIPIs among elementary school-age children in Merawi town. Methods. A school-based cross-sectional study design was used among 403 children. The direct wet mount method was used to diagnose the stool samples. The sociodemographic and behavioral characteristics of the respondents were collected using structured questionnaires. The data were analyzed using the chi-square test and logistic regression. Results. Out of the 403 students, the overall prevalence of HIPIs was 173 (42.9%). The magnitudes of single and double infections were 39.7% and 3.2%, respectively. Seventy-two (17.9%) were positive for Entamoeba histolytica, 63 (15.4%) for Giardia lamblia, 28 (9.6%) for Ascaris lumbricoides, 22 (6.9%) for hookworm, and 1 (0.2%) for Schistosoma mansoni. The prevalence of intestinal parasites was high in the age group of 6–11 years compared to other age groups. The following were the risk factors associated with HIPIs: groups aging 6 to 11 (; 95% CI: 0.531-17.498; ), aging 12 to 18 (; 95% CI: 0.055-1.828; ), not washing of hands after defecation (; 95% CI; 1.577-8.598; ), not regularly washing of hands after defecation (; 95% CI; 1.224-4.774; ), dirty fingernails (; 95% CI: 1.388-5.020; ), not wearing shoes (; 95% CI: 1.267-6.096; ), rural residence (; 95% CI; 0.06-0.351; ), and a family size greater than or equal to five (; 95% CI: 1.179-3.956; ). Conclusion. The prevalence of HIPIs among elementary school children in Merawi town was very high. Thus, there is a need for intensive health education for behavioral changes related to personal hygiene and mass treatment for effective control of HIPIs in the study area.
High Prevalence of Toxoplasma gondii Infection in Type I Diabetic Patients
Background. Type I diabetes (TΙDM) is a genetic or autoimmune disorder, which may be stimulated by induced immune system components due to the underlying infectious diseases. This study was undertaken to find out any possible association between Toxoplasma gondii infection and TIDM. Materials and Methods. One hundred and eighty-two blood samples were taken from individuals who were referred to outpatient clinics in Shiraz city, Southern Iran, during a 6-month period. The age of type I diabetic subjects () and the control group () was identical, which were less than 30 years. The sera were examined for IgG and IgM antibodies by ELISA and correlated with epidemiological factors such as age, sex, and family history of diabetes. Results. Out of 91 diabetic patients, 54 (59.3%) were female and 37 (40.7%) were male. The highest frequency of diabetes belonged to 6-10- and 11-15-year groups (). Toxoplasma infection prevalence in diabetic and control groups was 28.6% and 7.7%, respectively (). A significantly positive family history of diabetes was observed between diabetic patients (31 cases, 34.1%) and the control group (3 cases, 3.3%) (). Interestingly, IgG positivity was seen in 13 cases (41.9%) of patients with positive family history of type I diabetes and 13 cases (21.7%) of subjects with no positive family history of type I diabetes (). Conclusion. Our study showed a higher prevalence of Toxoplasma infection in type I diabetes patients. It is likely that the prevalence of TIDM decreases by increasing hygiene and preventing toxoplasmosis.
Epidemiological Survey of Toxoplasma gondii and Associated Risk Factors in Ruminant Species of the Khyber Pakhtunkhwa Province of Pakistan
Toxoplasma infection is one of the most common human parasitic diseases. During 2018-2020, in the rural areas of three districts of Pakistan, we surveyed a total of 451 animals, belonging to different asymptomatic ruminant species, to determine the prevalence of Toxoplasma gondii antibodies. We used ELISA assay as well as recorded some associated risk factors contributing to its transmission. IgM antibodies were detected in 17% and IgG in 13.4% of ruminant samples with the highest percentage, 10% for IgM and 8.6% for IgG in sheep. A strong significant association was found between antibodies and different species (IgM, .280, , and IgG, , ), respectively. Infection with T. gondii seems mainly associated with different geographic features and the presence of cats in the environment, low hygiene water systems and livestock that are mostly dependent on outdoor drinking and grazing. There was no significant association between IgM and age grouping (, nor for IgG (, ). The results of this study may be considered the starting point to promote the awareness about parasitic infections in ruminants in Pakistan in order to prevent this infection from further spreading.