Assemblages and Subassemblages of Giardia duodenalis in Rural Western, Kenya: Association with Sources, Signs, and SymptomsRead the full article
Journal of Parasitology Research publishes papers in all areas of basic and applied parasitology, including host-parasite relationships, parasitic diseases, disease vectors, and the social and economic issues around the impact of parasites.
Journal of Parasitology Research maintains an Editorial Board of practicing researchers from around the world, to ensure manuscripts are handled by editors who are experts in the field of study.
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In Vitro Filaricidal Properties of Aqueous Extracts of Combretum nigricans (Combretaceae) on Onchocerca ochengi (Onchocercidae)
Aim. Onchocerciasis is an endemic parasitic disease in sub-Saharan Africa that significantly impacts animal and human health. In Northern Cameroon, medicinal plants from the Combretum genus are used for onchocerciasis traditional treatment although there is no scientific evidence of their antifilarial potential. This study evaluates the in vitro macro- and microfilaricidal properties of water extracts from Combretum nigricans in Onchocerca ochengi. Material and Methods. O. ochengi microfilariae and adult male worms were recovered from cowhide fragments. Oxidative stress indicators and motility tests were used to assess the filaricidal impact. Female albino rats were used to test for acute toxicity. The contents of secondary metabolites were quantified. Results. The bark aqueous extract was more active on macrofilariae at 1 mg/mL for 24 h (100%) than the leaf (63.9%) and root (75%) extracts at the same concentration. Likewise, a stronger microfilaricidal effect was found with this extract at 0.5 mg/mL for 1 h (100%) compared to root and leaf extracts. The dose-response effect with the bark extract gave an inhibitory concentration 50 (IC50) of 351 μg/mL vs. 113 μg/mL for flubendazole after 24 h incubation, while the microfilaricidal efficacy revealed an IC50 of 158.7 μg/mL vs. 54.09 μg/mL for ivermectin after one-hour incubation. Examining stress indicators on parasite homogenates showed that macrofilaricidal activity is associated with a significant increase in nitric oxide, glutathione, and malondialdehyde generation and a decrease in catalase activity. At 2000 mg/kg, rats showed no harm. The phytochemical investigation revealed that the barks contained more phenolic acids, condensed tannins, flavonoids, and saponins than the leaves (). Conclusion. These findings support C. nigricans’ antifilarial activity and identify oxidative stress indicators as prospective treatment targets in O. ochengi. It would be interesting to conduct in vivo studies to understand their antifilarial activity better.
A Review of Ethnomedicinal Plants as Potential Anthelmintic Agents to Alternatively Control Gastrointestinal Nematodes of Ruminants in South Africa
Small ruminant production is one of the most important animal productions for food security in the world, especially in the developing world. Gastrointestinal nematode (GIN) infection is a threat to this animal’s production. Conventional drugs that are used to control these parasites are losing their efficacy due to the development of resistant parasites. These drugs are not biologically degradable, taint meat products and are also expensive for communal farmers. Hence, research is now exploring ethnomedicinal anthelmintic plants for an alternative remedy. The objective of this paper was to review ethnomedicinal plants as a potential alternative to unsustainable commercial anthelmintics. This review sought to understand common GINs infecting ruminants, resistance manifestation in GINs to conventional treatment, reasons communal farmers choose ethnomedicine, and modes of action in anthelmintic plants. It also examined the usage of plants and plant parts, dosage forms, methods for improving bioactivity, convectional validation procedures, and restrictions on ethnomedicinal plant use as anthelmintics in ethnomedicine. Such insight is essential, as it highlights the importance of ethnoveterinary medicine and ways to adopt or improve it as a potential alternative to conventional anthelmintics.
An Update on Gastrointestinal Parasitic Infection in Captive Wild Animals in Bangladesh
Gastrointestinal parasites cause health problems and even death in captive animals. These animals are more susceptible to parasitic infestations because of confinement and stress. The aim of the study is to describe parasitic causal agents in captive wild animals at the Bangladesh National Zoo, Chittagong Zoo, and Tilagarh Eco Park, in Sylhet. A total of 54 fecal samples were collected from the Bangladesh Zoo, Chittagong Zoo, and Tilagarh Eco Park from April 2022 to November 2022. Samples were collected from animals of the groups Aves (16), Reptiles (4), Artiodactyla (23), Perissodactyla (8), and Proboscidea (3). All samples were examined using a modified formalin ether sedimentation technique. Fecal examination consoled an overall occurrence of 61.1%. Out of 54 samples, 33 were positive for parasitic infection. The parasites observed were as follows: Ascarididae eggs (57.58%), Capillaria spp. (18.18%), Strongyloides spp. (9.09%), Trichuris spp. (6.06%), and mixed infection (9.09%). The order Reptiles had a 100% infection rate, while Aves had the lowest infection rate (50%). Only nematodes were detected in this study. Without showing evident, clinical signs and symptoms of disease, the prevalence of gastrointestinal parasites is high. This indicates a subclinical infection. This study shows that more epidemiological research and sanitation management programs, including regular antihelminthic therapy for controlling parasitic infection, should be adopted in zoos and ecoparks.
Participatory and Conventional Investigation of Tick Infestation in Camels and Cattle of Somali Pastoral Areas, Eastern Ethiopia
Ticks are a common parasite that affect many animals by causing slowed growth, reduced milk output, and financial losses for industries that depend on animal hides and skins. From June to December 2017, participatory and conventional investigations on tick infestation in camels and cattle were conducted in Kebribayah and Afdem districts of Ethiopia’s Somali Regional State. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence and density of ticks in these animals and establish strategic control measures to enhance livestock productivity and livelihoods in pastoral areas. The current study found that the prevalence of tick infestation in Kebribayah and Afdem districts was 83.3% and 86.8%, respectively. Rhipicephalus pulchellus (48.9%) was identified as the most common tick species in camels and cattle, followed by Amblyomma gemma (26.3%), Hyalomma truncatum (11.6%), Amblyomma lepidum (6.7%), and Amblyomma variegatum (6.5%). Among the variables considered, age and body condition score were significant risk factors (). Tick density varied depending on the recorded months and seasons (), with the highest mean tick density occurring in November () and during the wet season (). Livestock owners in Kebribayah and Afdem ranked topical acaricide application as the most effective tick control method, followed by ivermectin injections, with the traditional hand removal method being the least effective. These rankings were consistent across both districts, and there was moderate agreement among livestock keepers from both regions regarding the best method. Afdem livestock keepers had slightly weak agreement on high tick burden in spring (, ), and Kebribayah livestock keepers showed slightly strong agreement in tick burden across seasons (, ), with spring having a significantly higher burden than winter. Consequently, participatory appraisal indicated that ticks were important and prevalent ectoparasites in the study area. Finally, strategic tick control appropriate for specific management and production environments should be implemented biannually in wet seasons.
Trichomonas vaginalis and Associated Factors among Pregnant Women Attending Antenatal Care at Bule Hora University Teaching Hospital, Oromia Region, Southern Ethiopia
Trichomoniasis is caused by a flagellated protozoan parasite called Trichomonas vaginalis. It is one of the most common, curable nonsexually transmitted infections globally. In Ethiopia, complications associated with genital infection in pregnant women are a common problem. Despite the burden of the disease, epidemiological data related to this disease is currently rare in Africa, particularly in Ethiopia. Objective. This research is aimed at assessing the prevalence of Trichomonas vaginalis and associated factors among pregnant women attending antenatal care at Bule Hora University Teaching Hospital. Methods. An institutional-based cross-sectional study was conducted among 196 pregnant women attending ANC at Bule Hora University Teaching Hospital. Structured questionnaires were used to collect sociodemographic and associated factor data. The consecutive sampling technique was used to include study participants. The two vaginal swabs were collected by brushing the vagina with a sterile cotton swab and tested by using direct wet mount and the Giemsa staining. The data were analyzed using SPSS version 26 for logistic regression analysis. A value < 0.05 with 95% CI was used to declare it statistically significant. Result. An overall prevalence of T. vaginalis among pregnant women was 7.7% (95% with confidence interval (CI), 0.043-0.123). The highest prevalence was observed among the 35–39-year-old age group with 18.2% and among widowed women with 25%. This study revealed that the number of sexual partners (AOR: 3.215, 95% CI: 1.062-9.731) was a significant associated factor of T. vaginalis.Conclusion. The prevalence of T. vaginalis was considerably high among pregnant women in this study. This finding emphasizes the need for routine screening and treatment of pregnant women in the first antenatal care and enhances the need for regular health education for pregnant women at antenatal clinics to make them aware of their health, and avoidance of the risk of trichomoniasis is advised.
Knowledge, Attitude, and Practice towards Prevention of Intestinal Helminth Infection among Residents of the Ho Municipality in the Volta Region of Ghana
Background. This study investigated the knowledge, attitude, and practices of residents in the Ho municipality towards intestinal helminth infections and their prevention. Method. A descriptive cross-sectional study involving questionnaire administration was conducted among randomly sampled residents of the Ho municipality of the Volta Region of Ghana. A minimum sample size of 400 was calculated for subjects using Yamane’s formula for population. Pearson’s chi-square analysis was done to determine any relationship between sociodemographic characteristics and the categories of knowledge, attitude, and practices. Results from data analysis were computed as frequencies and percentages. is considered statistically significant. Results. Of the 400 participants, 343 (85.7%) were aware of intestinal helminths, but the majority had poor knowledge of its cause despite 50.5% (202) having good knowledge scores. Most participants (331, 82.8%) had a bad attitude toward preventing the disease. Most (335, 83.8%) of the community members still adhered to the poor practice of open defecation with the excuse of unavailable latrines, and some (143, 35.8%) believe that intestinal helminths are nothing to worry about. Conclusion. Health education should address the perceptions towards preventing intestinal helminthiasis and be complemented by making available public lavatories in the municipality to curb the unacceptable practice of open defecation.