In Vitro Acaricidal Activity of Selected Medicinal Plants Traditionally Used against Ticks in Eastern EthiopiaRead the full article
Journal of Parasitology Research publishes papers in all areas of basic and applied parasitology, including host-parasite relationships, parasitic diseases, disease vectors, and the social and economic issues around the impact of parasites.
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Establishment of an Experimental Procedure for Preparing Trial Serum Samples for the Specific Serodiagnosis of Toxocara canis for External Quality Assessment Schemes
Background. External quality assessment (EQA) provides evidence of reliable, accurate, and precise results for customers using the diagnostic test for Toxocara canis. Objective. To establish a procedure for producing standard Toxocara canis serum samples for serodiagnostic testing in EQA. Methods. The collected serum samples to contain anti-Toxocara canis antibodies were screened by ELISA and confirmed by Western blotting. These samples were found to be negative for other helminth antibodies, anti-HIV-1 and -2 antibodies, anti-HCV antibodies, and antibodies to HBs antigen. The sera were divided, processed by both freeze-drying and freezing methods, and then stored. The stability and homogeneity of the samples were evaluated after 7 days, 1 month, 3 months, and 6 months. An -test and a -test were applied to evaluate their homogeneity and stability. Results. Among eleven samples positive by ELISA, ten of them were confirmed via Western blotting by positive reaction with 5 specific Toxocara canis bands. Two lots of trial standard sera containing specific anti-Toxocara canis antibodies were successfully produced. Lot DK had a concentration of NovaTec Units (NTU), and Lot DL had a concentration of NTU. After storage at -80°C, the samples prepared by the freeze-drying method were stable for at least 3 months, and the samples prepared by the freezing method were stable for 6 months (). Samples produced by both methods were stable for 7 days at 30°C (). Conclusion. Specific serodiagnosis samples of anti-Toxocara canis antibodies for EQA could be produced that possessed homogeneity and stability lasting for 3 months and 6 months by the freeze-drying and freezing methods, respectively. At 30°C, the samples produced by both methods were stable for 7 days, suitable for delivery to remote laboratories.
Malaria Parasitemia in Febrile Patients Mono- and Coinfected with Soil-Transmitted Helminthiasis Attending Sanja Hospital, Northwest Ethiopia
Background. Malaria is a life-threatening disease associated with high morbidity and mortality. Helminths are among the most widespread infectious agents prevalent in tropical and subtropical regions of the developing world. Malaria and soil-transmitted helminthiasis (STHs) are coendemic and major public health problems in Ethiopia. The effects of helminth coinfection on malaria parasitemia remained poorly understood. Therefore, the objective of this study was to assess malaria parasitemia among malaria-monoinfected and malaria-soil-transmitted helminthiasis–coinfected febrile patients attending Sanja Hospital, Northwest Ethiopia. Methods. A cross-sectional study with parallel groups was conducted to assess malaria parasitemia among malaria-monoinfected and malaria-soil-transmitted helminthiasis–coinfected febrile patients in Sanja Hospital from January to March 2019. Double population proportion formula was used for sample size calculation, and convenient sampling technique was used to select 134 study participants. Data were entered and analyzed by using the Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) version 20. Descriptive statistics, independent -test, and one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) were performed. A value of <0.05 was considered as statistically significant. Results. From 134 malaria-positive study participants, 67 were malaria-monoinfected and 67 were malaria-STHs–coinfected patients. Out of 67 malaria STHs-coinfected patients, 54 (80.6%) were infected with hookworm followed by Ascaris lumbricoides 11 (16.4%) and Strongyloides stercoralis 2 (3%). The mean Plasmodium parasite density was significantly higher in malaria-STHs–coinfected patients than in patients infected with only Plasmodium parasites (). The intensities of hookworm infection showed a positive association with Plasmodium parasite densities (, ). Conclusions. Infections with STHs, especially hookworm, were positively associated with Plasmodium parasite density. The current study finding also revealed that increased worm burden of hookworm as expressed by egg intensity had significantly increased Plasmodium parasite density.
The Mosquito Repellent Activity of the Active Component of Air Freshener Gel from Java Citronella Oil (Cymbopogon winterianus)
This study examines the active component of Cymbopogon winterianus (Java citronella) oil, as a green mosquito repellent, obtained through a steam distillation method. Java citronella oil, which contains citronellol, citronellal, and geraniol, was isolated by batch vacuum fractional distillation, and their effect was tested against the dengue fever (DF) vector, known as Aedes aegypti. Furthermore, air freshener gels were formulated with Java citronella oil, carrageenan, gum, sodium benzoate, ethylene glycol, polysorbate 20, sodium chloride, and distilled water, at varying concentrations. The results show that formula I has the best controlled release evaporation for citronellal, citronellol, and geraniol, as well as the best storage time of 16.82 days and 12.77 days for geraniol and citronellol, respectively. The most significant specific gravity (0.0136) was recorded in formula V, while gel formula I exhibited the highest level of instability at 35°C, with a syneresis value of 77.11% in and pH 5.33. In addition, formula IV at 5°C demonstrated the highest syneresis (75.34%) in , with pH 7.04, while a peak viscosity of 100,958 cP was recorded in formula IV. The repellent activity of each active component was measured based on the period of protection conferred against the bites of Aedes aegypti within one hour, and the results showed geraniol and citronellol, with respective activity of and , as the most effective.
Prevalence of Soil-Transmitted Helminth and Schistosoma mansoni Infection and Their Associated Factors among Hiruy Abaregawi Primary School Children, Rural Debre Tabor, North West Ethiopia: A Cross-Sectional Study
Background. In Ethiopia, 25.3 and 12.3 million school-age children are living in soil-transmitted helminth and schistosomiasis endemic areas, respectively. The school children are at risk for both soil-transmitted helminths and Schistosoma mansoni due to juvenile activities like walking barefoot, playing with dirty objects that might be contaminated with feces, and fetching of unclean water for drinking. There are no data that indicate the status of soil-transmitted helminths and Schistosoma mansoni among children at Hiruy Abaregawi primary school. Therefore, the main objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of soil-transmitted helminth and Schistosoma mansoni infection among Hiruy Abaregawi primary school children. Methods. A cross-sectional study was conducted from March to April, 2019, at Hiruy Abaregawi primary school, Rural Debre Tabor, North West Ethiopia. A total of 340 students were included in the study. Informed written consent was obtained from the children’s parent. Systematic sampling technique was used to select the children. About 2 grams of stool samples was collected and transported to Debre Tabor University Microbiology and Parasitology Teaching Laboratory to conduct the Kato-Katz technique. Data were analyzed using SPSS version 23. Variables with a value < 0.05 were considered statistically significant. Results. The prevalence of soil-transmitted helminths and Schistosoma mansoni was 51/340 (15%). Among the identified parasites, Ascaris lumbricoides accounts for 28 (8.2%), hookworm 13 (3.8%), Trichuris trichiura 4 (1.2%), and Schistosoma mansoni 6 (1.8%). In this study, 24 (7%) of Ascaris lumbricoides-, 11 (3.2%) of hookworm-, 4 (1.2%) of Trichuris trichiura-, and 5 (1.5%) of Schistosoma mansoni-infected children showed light infections and no heavy infection in both soil-transmitted helminths and Schistosoma mansoni was observed. Finger nail trimming status, hand washing before eating, availability of toilet at home, educational level of students, and sex of students were factors associated with soil-transmitted helminth infection. Conclusion and Recommendations. In this study, the low prevalence of soil-transmitted helminths and Schistosoma mansoni was observed. The combination of regular mass deworming program and health information on risk factors should be strengthened for the prevention and control of soil-transmitted helminth infection.
A 7-Year Trend of Malaria at Primary Health Facilities in Northwest Ethiopia
Background. Malaria is a severe parasitic disease that can progress to complications of the nervous system, respiratory distress, renal problems, metabolic acidosis, and hypoglycemia which can result in death in case of delay or absence of appropriate treatment. Even though health service facilities and vector control strategy in the community are implemented as control measures, variations in temperature and rainfall that can affect the life cycle of parasite are among the factors of malaria prevalence over the years. The aim of this trend analysis was to assess the prevalence and the impact of malaria over the seasons and years. Methods. A cross-sectional study using retrospective information was conducted at two health centers Gorgora and Chuahit in Dembia district. The data was collected from lab logbooks routinely diagnosed and registered for seven years. A systematic sampling technique was used by taking patient results from lab logbooks during the first ten days of every month. Data were entered directly into the EpiData Entry software version 3.1 and analysed with the SPSS software version 20. Moreover, a chi-square test with a level of significance set at less than 5% was used. Results. From a total of 11,879 clients that participated, 56.6% were males. The overall malaria prevalence in the last seven years was 21.8%, and the dominant parasite was P. falciparum which accounted for 15.6% of the participants which was threefold higher than P. vivax in the seven-year trend. Moreover, at Gorgora health center, the prevalence which was 15% at the beginning of the study (2012) rose to 33.9% and 30.5% in 2017 and 2018, respectively. In the analysis of the seven years, October and September in which the prevalence of malaria was 32.6% and 27.2%, respectively, constituted the peak months. High malaria prevalence was observed in autumn (September to November) season, and the least was observed in spring (March to May) with the prevalence of (17.8%) (). Malaria attack showed significant variability among different age groups, and the age group 15-29 and males were the most affected (). Conclusion. In this study, malaria transmission remained high, which affected males more than females. Thus, appropriate season-based bed net use, health education, immediate patient treatment, and stagnant water drainage methods are needed to alleviate the problem.
A New Method to Test Molluscicides against the Philippine Schistosomiasis Snail Vectors
To expedite the discovery of novel molluscicides in the laboratory, this study aimed to evaluate the performance of a new molluscicidal assay. This assay is based on Oncomelania hupensis quadrasi snails and is called miniaturized plate test or mpt. To perform this assay, a 12-well plate, 3 snails per well, and 24-h exposure period were used. The performance of mpt was evaluated using niclosamide and Ardisia plant extract (tagpo extract) as test substances while WHO’s guidelines for a conventional plate test (cpt) served as standard. One cpt and four mpt independent trials were performed for niclosamide and tagpo extract. Probit analysis of dose–response data was run in R to generate lethal concentrations (LC50 and LC90), while lethal ratio test was performed to detect significant difference between paired LC50s (or LC90s). Using niclosamide, the calculated LC50 values were 0.104, 0.127, 0.136, 0.139, and 0.140 g/m2 for cpt, mpt 1, mpt 2, mpt 3, and mpt 4, respectively, while the LC90 values were 0.266, 0.268, 0.244, 0.251, and 0.261 g/m2, using the same sequence, respectively. For tagpo extract, the LC50 values were 1.467, 1.547, 1.659, 1.797, and 1.659 g/m2, for cpt, mpt 1, mpt 2, mpt 3, and mpt 4, respectively, and the LC90s were 2.188, 2.195, 2.501, 2.358, and 2.501 g/m2, respectively. The lethal ratio test revealed that a significant difference exists between the LC50s of cpt and mpt 1 when using niclosamide with a lethal ratio and confidence limits of 0.820 (0.663, 0.977, ) and another significant difference between LC50s of mpt 1 and mpt 3 using tagpo extract with computed lethal ratio and confidence limits of 0.861 (0.782, 0.939, ). Taken together, the results point out that mpt generates accurate and reproducible lethal concentration values. Hence, mpt may be used as an alternative method to screen molluscicides that are active against schistosome snail vectors.