Table 2: Cytokine concentrations (pg/mL) in supernatants of PBMC cultures cocultured with living L3 from Ancylostoma caninum. Cells were either separated from the L3 by a membrane insert (cells/L3) or were cultivated in direct contact with the parasites (cells+L3). Values from hookworm-infected individuals ( ) and negative controls ( ) are compared and indicated as mean values ± standard errors. Significant differences between patient groups are indicated with an asterisk ( ).


IL-1 Hookworm
Negative controls
Negative controls
TNF- Hookworm
Negative controls
Negative controls 0