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Journal of Parasitology Research
Volume 2011, Article ID 926812, 10 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2011/926812
Research Article

Energetic Cost of Ichthyophonus Infection in Juvenile Pacific Herring (Clupea pallasii)

1Auke Bay Laboratories, Alaska Fisheries Science Center, National Marine Fisheries Service, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, 17109 Point Lena Loop Road, Juneau, AL 99801, USA
2Marrowstone Marine Field Station, and Western Fisheries Research Center, United States Geological Survey, 616 Marrowstone Point Road, Nordland, WA 98358-9633, USA

Received 2 December 2010; Accepted 14 February 2011

Academic Editor: Bernard Marchand

Copyright © 2011 Johanna J. Vollenweider et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

The energetic costs of fasting and Ichthyophonus infection were measured in juvenile Pacific herring (Clupea pallasii) in a lab setting at three temperatures. Infected herring incurred significant energetic costs, the magnitude of which depended on fish condition at the time of infection (fat versus lean). Herring that were fed continually and were in relatively good condition at the time of infection (fat) never stored lipid despite ad libitum feeding. In feeding herring, the energetic cost of infection was a 30% reduction in total energy content relative to controls 52 days post infection. Following food deprivation (lean condition), infection caused an initial delay in the compensatory response of herring. Thirty-one days after re-feeding, the energetic cost of infection in previously-fasted fish was a 32% reduction in total energy content relative to controls. Body composition of infected herring subsequently recovered to some degree, though infected herring never attained the same energy content as their continuously fed counterparts. Fifty-two days after re-feeding, the energetic cost of infection in previously-fasted fish was a 6% reduction in total energy content relative to controls. The greatest impacts of infection occurred in colder temperatures, suggesting Ichthyophonus-induced reductions in body condition may have greater consequences in the northern extent of herring's range, where juveniles use most of their energy reserves to survive their first winter.