Table of Contents Author Guidelines Submit a Manuscript
Journal of Parasitology Research
Volume 2011, Article ID 926812, 10 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2011/926812
Research Article

Energetic Cost of Ichthyophonus Infection in Juvenile Pacific Herring (Clupea pallasii)

1Auke Bay Laboratories, Alaska Fisheries Science Center, National Marine Fisheries Service, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, 17109 Point Lena Loop Road, Juneau, AL 99801, USA
2Marrowstone Marine Field Station, and Western Fisheries Research Center, United States Geological Survey, 616 Marrowstone Point Road, Nordland, WA 98358-9633, USA

Received 2 December 2010; Accepted 14 February 2011

Academic Editor: Bernard Marchand

Copyright © 2011 Johanna J. Vollenweider et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. H. Rahimian and J. Thulin, “Epizootiology of Ichthyophonus hoferi in herring populations off the Swedish west coast,” Disease of Aquatic Organisms, vol. 27, no. 3, pp. 187–195, 1996. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  2. A. H. McVicar, “Ichthyophonus and related organisms,” in Fish Diseases and Disorders, Viral, Bacterial and Fungal Infections, P. T. K. Woo and D. W. Bruno, Eds., pp. 661–687, CABI, New York, NY, USA, 1999. View at Google Scholar
  3. R. A. Herr, L. Ajello, J. W. Taylor, S. N. Arseculeratne, and L. Mendoza, “Phylogenetic analysis of Rhinosporidium seeberi's 18S small-subunit ribosomal DNA groups this pathogen among members of the protoctistan mesomycetozoa clade,” Journal of Clinical Microbiology, vol. 37, no. 9, pp. 2750–2754, 1999. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  4. R. M. Kocan, P. Hershberger, T. Mehl et al., “Pathogenicity of Ichthyophonus hoferi for laboratory-reared Pacific herring Clupea pallasi and its early appearance in wild Puget Sound herring,” Diseases of Aquatic Organisms, vol. 35, no. 1, pp. 23–29, 1999. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  5. P. K. Hershberger, K. Stick, B. Bui et al., “Incidence of Ichthyophonus hoferi in Puget Sound fishes and its increase with age of Pacific herring,” Journal of Aquatic Animal Health, vol. 14, no. 1, pp. 50–56, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  6. G. D. Marty, E. F. Freiberg, and T. R. Meyers, “Viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus, Ichthyophonus hoferi, and other causes of morbidity in Pacific herring Clupea pallasi spawning in Prince William Sound, Alaska, USA,” Diseases of Aquatic Organisms, vol. 32, no. 1, pp. 15–40, 1998. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  7. S. R. M. Jones and S. C. Dawe, “Ichthyophonus hoferi Plehn & Mulsow in British Columbia stocks of Pacific herring, Clupea pallasi Valenciennes, and its infectivity to chinook salmon, Oncorhynchus tshawytscha (Walbaum),” Journal of Fish Diseases, vol. 25, no. 7, pp. 415–421, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  8. G. D. Marty, P. J. F. Hulson, and S. E. Miller, “Failure of population recovery in relation to disease in Pacific herring,” Diseases of Aquatic Organisms, vol. 90, no. 1, pp. 1–14, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  9. K. R. Patterson, “Modelling the impact of disease-induced mortality in an exploited population: the outbreak of the fungal parasite Ichthyophonus hoferi in the North Sea herring (Clupea harengus),” Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences, vol. 53, no. 12, pp. 2870–2887, 1996. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  10. A. H. McVicar and H. A. McLay, “Tissue response of plaice, haddock, and rainbow trout to the systemic fungus Ichthyophonus,” in Fish and Shellfish Pathology, A. E. Ellis, Ed., pp. 329–346, Academic Press, London, UK, 1985. View at Google Scholar
  11. R. Kocan, S. LaPatra, J. Gregg, J. Winton, and P. Hershberger, “Ichthyophonus-induced cardiac damage: a mechanism for reduced swimming stamina in salmonids,” Journal of Fish Diseases, vol. 29, no. 9, pp. 521–527, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  12. R. Kocan, P. Hershberger, G. Sanders, and J. Winton, “Effects of temperature on disease progression and swimming stamina in Ichthyophonus-infected rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss (Walbaum),” Journal of Fish Diseases, vol. 32, no. 10, pp. 835–843, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  13. E. T. Schultz and D. O. Conover, “The allometry of energy reserve depletion: test of a mechanism for size-dependent winter mortality,” Oecologia, vol. 119, no. 4, pp. 474–483, 1999. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  14. R. J. Beamish and C. Mahnken, “A critical size and period hypothesis to explain natural regulation of salmon abundance and the linkage to climate and climate change,” Progress in Oceanography, vol. 49, no. 1–4, pp. 423–437, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  15. A. J. Paul and J. M. Paul, “Comparisons of whole body energy content of captive fasting age zero Alaskan Pacific herring (Clupea pallasi Valenciennes) and cohorts over- wintering in nature,” Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology, vol. 226, no. 1, pp. 75–86, 1998. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  16. J. R. Post and E. A. Parkinson, “Energy allocation strategy in young fish: allometry and survival,” Ecology, vol. 82, no. 4, pp. 1040–1051, 2001. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  17. J. N. Womble and M. F. Sigler, “Seasonal availability of abundant, energy-rich prey influences the abundance and diet of a marine predator, the Steller sea lion Eumetopias jubatus,” Marine Ecology Progress Series, vol. 325, pp. 281–293, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  18. P. G. R. Jodice, D. D. Roby, K. R. Turco et al., “Assessing the nutritional stress hypothesis: relative influence of diet quantity and quality on seabird productivity,” Marine Ecology Progress Series, vol. 325, pp. 267–279, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  19. M. Yang, “Food habits of the commercially important groundfishes in the Gulf of Alaska in 1990,” NOAA Technical Memorandum, NMFS-AFSC, vol. 22, 59 pages, 1993. View at Google Scholar
  20. R. J. Foy and B. L. Norcross, “Spatial and temporal variability in the diet of juvenile Pacific herring (Clupea pallasi) in Prince William Sound, Alaska,” Canadian Journal of Zoology, vol. 77, no. 5, pp. 697–706, 1999. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  21. R. J. Foy and A. J. Paul, “Winter feeding and changes in somatic energy content of age-0 Pacific herring in Prince William Sound, Alaska,” Transactions of the American Fisheries Society, vol. 128, no. 6, pp. 1193–1200, 1999. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  22. B. L. Norcross, E. D. Brown, R. J. Foy et al., “A synthesis of the life history and ecology of juvenile Pacific herring in Prince William Sound, Alaska,” Fisheries Oceanography, vol. 10, supplement 1, pp. 42–57, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  23. J. J. Vollenweider, R. A. Heintz, L. Schaufler et al., “Seasonal cycles in whole-body proximate composition and energy content of forage fish vary with water depth,” Marine Biology, vol. 158, pp. 413–427, 2011. View at Google Scholar
  24. W. W. Christie, Lipid Analysis: Isolation, Separation, Identification, and Structural Analysis of Lipids, Oily Press, Bridgwater, England, 3rd edition, 2003.
  25. R. A. Sweeney and P. R. Rexroad, “Comparison of LECO FP-228 nitrogen determinator with AOAC copper catalyst Kjeldahl method for crude protein,” Journal of the Association of Official Analytical Chemists, vol. 70, no. 6, pp. 1028–1030, 1987. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  26. J. R. Brett, “Energetics,” in Physiological Ecology of Pacific Salmon, C. Groot, L. Margolis, and W. C. Clarke, Eds., chapter 1, UBC Press, Vancouver, Canada, 1995. View at Google Scholar
  27. A. J. Paul, J. M. Paul, and E. D. Brown, “Fall and spring somatic energy content for Alaskan Pacific herring (Clupea pallasi Valenciennes 1847) relative to age, size and sex,” Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology, vol. 223, no. 1, pp. 133–142, 1998. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  28. T. P. Hurst, M. L. Spencer, S. M. Sogard, and A. W. Stoner, “Compensatory growth, energy storage and behavior of juvenile Pacific halibut Hippoglossus stenolepis following thermally induced growth reduction,” Marine Ecology Progress Series, vol. 293, pp. 233–240, 2005. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  29. M. K. Kim and R. T. Lovell, “Effect of restricted feeding regimens on compensatory weight gain and body tissue changes in channel catfish Ictalurus punctatus in ponds,” Aquaculture, vol. 135, no. 4, pp. 285–293, 1995. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  30. D. Álvarez and A. G. Nicieza, “Compensatory response 'defends' energy levels but not growth trajectories in brown trout, Salmo trutta L,” Proceedings of the Royal Society B, vol. 272, no. 1563, pp. 601–607, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  31. I. J. Morgan and N. B. Metcalfe, “Deferred costs of compensatory growth after autumnal food shortage in juvenile salmon,” Proceedings of the Royal Society B, vol. 268, no. 1464, pp. 295–301, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  32. D. K. Rowe, J. E. Thorpe, and A. M. Shanks, “Role of fat stores in the maturation of male Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) parr,” Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences, vol. 48, no. 3, pp. 405–413, 1991. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  33. J. D. Arendt, “Adaptive intrinsic growth rates: an integration across taxa,” Quarterly Review of Biology, vol. 72, no. 2, pp. 149–177, 1997. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  34. J. M. Billerbeck, T. E. Lankford Jr., and D. O. Conover, “Evolution of intrinsic growth and energy acquisition rates. I. Trade-offs with swimming performance in Menidia menidia,” Evolution, vol. 55, no. 9, pp. 1863–1872, 2001. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  35. N. J. Royle, J. Lindström, and N. B. Metcalfe, “Effect of growth compensation on subsequent physical fitness in green swordtails Xiphophorus helleri,” Biology Letters, vol. 2, no. 1, pp. 39–42, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  36. S. B. Munch and D. O. Conover, “Rapid growth results in increased susceptibility to predation in Menidia menidia,” Evolution, vol. 57, no. 9, pp. 2119–2127, 2003. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  37. K. I. O'Connor, A. C. Taylor, and N. B. Metcalfe, “The stability of standard metabolic rate during a period of food deprivation in juvenile Atlantic salmon,” Journal of Fish Biology, vol. 57, no. 1, pp. 41–51, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  38. V. Haist and M. Stocker, “Growth and maturation of Pacific herring (Clupea harengus pallasi) in the Strait of Georgia,” Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences, vol. 42, no. 1, pp. 138–146, 1985. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  39. National Data Buoy Center, 2010, http://www.ndbc.noaa.gov/.