Journal of Parasitology Research / 2011 / Article / Tab 1

Review Article

Helminth Parasites and the Modulation of Joint Inflammation

Table 1

Summary of some of the most common rodent models of musclo-skeletal disease.

PrincipleModelInductionImmunological featuresReference

Cartilage complex autoimmunity Collagen-induced arthritis (CIA)Immunization with homologous or heterologous type II collagen(i) Increases in anticollagen AB
(ii) Increases in complement, neutrophils, macrophages, B cells, and α/β TCR+/CD4+ T cells
(iii) Increases in TNFα, TGFβ 2, IL-1, IL-6, IL-17 and IFNγ, and IL-12 (later phases)
Proteoglycan-induced arthritisIP injections in FCA at 0 and 1 weeks; IP injections in FIA at week 4 and 7(i) Increases in CD4+ T cells and Th1-type cytokines, particularly IFNγ [14]
K/BxN serum transferIP injection of serum from KRNxNOD strain(i) Increases in GPI antibodies, mast cells, neutrophils, TNFα, and IL-1[15]

InfectionMycoplasma infectionIV injection with M. arthriticus (i) Increases in Th1 in susceptible mice Increases in Th2 in arthritis-resistant mice
(ii) Suppression of T-lymphocyte proliferation and IL-2 Increases in IL-4 and IL-6
[16, 17]
Staphylococcus infectionIV injection with S. aureus (i) Increases in TNFα, TNFβ, IL-1β, and IL-12[18]

Bacterial fragment inducedStreptococcal cell wall (SCW) IP/IA injection of SCW(i) Increases in TNFα, TNFβ, IL-1, IL-6, IFNβ, and IFNγ
(ii) Increases in CD4+ T cells in chronic, not acute arthritis
Mycobacterium in FCAIA injection(i) Increases in circulating neutrophils, TNFα, IL-12p40, and IL-17[22, 23]

AdjuvantinducedAvridineSC injection(i) Activated macrophages, CD4+ T cells[24]
PristaneSC (rats) or IP (mice) injection + booster 7 weeks later(ii) Increases in TNFα, IL-1β, and IL-6[25]
Oil induced FIASC injection(iii) Increases in macrophages, neutrophils, CD4+ T cells, B cells, TNFα, and IL-6[24]

Genetic manipulationTNFαTNF transgenic strain; spontaneous(i) Increases in TNFα, IL-6, and IL-1β[21]

(AB: antibodies; CFA: Freund’s complete adjuvant; FIA: Freund’s incomplete adjuvant; GPI: glucose-6 phosphate isomerase; IA: intra-articular; IFNγ: interferon-gamma; IL: interleukin; IP: intraperitoneal; IV: intravenous; KXN: T-cell receptor transgene mouse strain; NOD: nonobese diabetic mouse strain; RA: rheumatoid arthritis; SC: subcutaneous; TGFβ: transforming growth factor-beta; TNFα: tumour necrosis factor-alpha).

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