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Journal of Parasitology Research
Volume 2012 (2012), Article ID 362131, 8 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2012/362131
Review Article

B-Cell Response during Protozoan Parasite Infections

Centro de Investigaciones en Bioquímica Clínica e Inmunología (CIBICI-CONICET), Departamento de Bioquímica Clínica, Facultad de Ciencias Químicas, Universidad Nacional de Córdoba, Haya de la Torre y Medina Allende, Ciudad Universitaria, 5000 Córdoba, Argentina

Received 31 August 2011; Accepted 6 October 2011

Academic Editor: Mauricio M. Rodrigues

Copyright © 2012 María C. Amezcua Vesely et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

In this review, we discuss how protozoan parasites alter immature and mature B cell compartment. B1 and marginal zone (MZ) B cells, considered innate like B cells, are activated during protozoan parasite infections, and they generate short lived plasma cells providing a prompt antibody source. In addition, protozoan infections induce massive B cell response with polyclonal activation that leads to hypergammaglobulnemia with serum antibodies specific for the parasites and self and/or non related antigens. To protect themselves, the parasites have evolved unique ways to evade B cell immune responses inducing apoptosis of MZ and conventional mature B cells. As a consequence of the parasite induced-apoptosis, the early IgM response and an already establish humoral immunity are affected during the protozoan parasite infection. Moreover, some trypanosomatides trigger bone marrow immature B cell apoptosis, influencing the generation of new mature B cells. Simultaneously with their ability to release antibodies, B cells produce cytokines/quemokines that influence the characteristic of cellular immune response and consequently the progression of parasite infections.