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Journal of Parasitology Research
Volume 2012, Article ID 507874, 12 pages
Review Article

The Immune Response to Trypanosoma cruzi: Role of Toll-Like Receptors and Perspectives for Vaccine Development

1Centro de Terapia Celular e Molecular (CTCMol), Universidade Federal de São Paulo (UNIFESP), 04044-010 São Paulo, SP, Brazil
2Instituto de Biofísica Carlos Chagas Filho, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), 21941-902 Rio de Janeiro, RJ, Brazil
3Instituto de Microbiologia Paulo de Góes, Centro de Ciências da Saúde, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), CCS, Avenida Carlos Chagas Filho, 373 Bloco D, sala 35, Cidade Universitária, 21941-902 Rio de Janeiro, RJ, Brazil

Received 1 September 2011; Accepted 31 October 2011

Academic Editor: Marcela F. Lopes

Copyright © 2012 Mauricio M. Rodrigues et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


In the past ten years, studies have shown the recognition of Trypanosoma cruzi-associated molecular patterns by members of the Toll-like receptor (TLR) family and demonstrated the crucial participation of different TLRs during the experimental infection with this parasite. In the present review, we will focus on the role of TLR-activated pathways in the modulation of both innate and acquired immune responses to T. cruzi infection, as well as discuss the state of the art of vaccine research and development against the causative agent of Chagas disease (or American trypanosomiasis).