Journal of Parasitology Research / 2012 / Article / Tab 1

Review Article

ETosis: A Microbicidal Mechanism beyond Cell Death

Table 1

Microorganisms or molecules able to trigger extracellular traps release.

ActivatorsCellsReference

Activated endothelial cellNeutrophil[6]
Antiribonucleoprotein IgGSLE Neutrophil[7]
Aspergillus fumigatus (conidia or hyphae)Neutrophil[8, 9]
Autoantibodies (anti-LL-37/anti-HNP)SLE Neutrophil[10]
CalciumHL-60 lineage, neutrophil[11, 12]
Candida albicans (hyphae or yeast)Neutrophil[13]
Cryptococcus gattiiNeutrophil[14]
Cryptococcus neoformansNeutrophil[15]
Eimeria bovisNeutrophil[16]
Enterococcus faecalis Neutrophils[17]
Equine spermatozoaNeutrophil[18]
Escherichia coliNeutrophil, monocyte[17, 1921]
Glucose oxidaseNeutrophil[22]
GM-CSF + C5aNeutrophil[23, 24]
GM-CSF + LPSNeutrophil[24]
Haemophilus influenzaeNeutrophil[25, 26]
Helicobacter pyloriNeutrophil[27]
Hydrogen peroxideNeutrophil, mast cell, chicken heterophil[22, 28, 29]
Interferon (IFN)-α+ C5aNeutrophil[23]
IFN-γ + C5aNeutrophil, eosinophil[23, 30]
IFN-γ + C5a, LPS or eotaxinEosinophil[30]
Interleukin 5 + LPS/C5a/eotaxinEosinophil[30]
Interleukin 8Neutrophil[1, 31]
Interleukin 23 and IL-1βMast cells[32]
Klebsiella pneumoniaeNeutrophil (tissue)[33]
Lactococcus lactisNeutrophil[34]
Leishmania amazonensis (promastigotes/amastigotes/lipophosphoglycan)Neutrophil[35]
Leishmania amazonensis, L. donovani, L. major, L. chagasi (promastigotes)Neutrophil[3537]
Lipopolysaccharide (LPS)Neutrophil[1]
Listeria monocytogenesNeutrophil[20, 38]
Mannheimia haemolytica and leukotoxinNeutrophil[39]
M1 protein/M1 protein-fibrinogen complexNeutrophil, mast cell[40, 41]
Mycobacterium tuberculosis, M. canettiiNeutrophil[42]
Nitric oxideNeutrophil[43, 44]
Panton-Valentine leukocidin, autolysin, and lipaseNeutrophil[45]
Phorbol myristate acetate (PMA)Neutrophil, mast cell, chicken heterophil[1, 12, 28, 29]
PMA + ionomycinNeutrophil[17]
Platelet-activating factorNeutrophil[27]
Platelet TLR-4Neutrophil[46]
Pseudomonas aeruginosaMast cell[28]
Serratia marcescensNeutrophil[17]
Shigella flexneriNeutrophil (tissue)[1]
Staphylococcus aureusNeutrophil, mast cell[22, 28, 45]
StatinsNeutrophil, monocytes/macrophages[47]
Streptococcus (Group A–GAS)/PilusNeutrophil, mast cell[34, 40, 48]
Streptococcus dysgalactiaeNeutrophil[17]
Streptococcus pneumoniaeNeutrophil (tissue)[49]
Streptococcus pyogenesMast cell[28]
Syncytiotrophoblast microparticlesNeutrophil[31]
TNF-αHL-60 lineage[11]
TNF-α + ANCA IgGNeutrophil[50]
Yeast particulate B-glucanNeutrophil[51]
Yersinia enterocoliticaNeutrophil[52]
δ-Toxin from Staphylococcus epidermidis Neutrophil[53]

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