Table of Contents Author Guidelines Submit a Manuscript
Journal of Parasitology Research
Volume 2014 (2014), Article ID 706105, 6 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2014/706105
Research Article

A Comparison of Nested PCR Assay with Conventional Techniques for Diagnosis of Intestinal Cryptosporidiosis in AIDS Cases from Northern India

Department of Microbiology, Maulana Azad Medical College and Lok Nayak Hospital, Bahadur Shah Zafar Marg, New Delhi 110002, India

Received 6 August 2013; Accepted 29 October 2013; Published 12 January 2014

Academic Editor: Wej Choochote

Copyright © 2014 Beena Uppal et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. B. A. Leav, M. Mackay, and H. D. Ward, “Cryptosporidium species: new insights and old challenges,” Clinical Infectious Diseases, vol. 36, no. 7, pp. 903–908, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  2. L. Xiao, R. Fayer, U. Ryan, and S. J. Upton, “Cryptosporidium taxonomy: recent advances and implications for public health,” Clinical Microbiology Reviews, vol. 17, no. 1, pp. 72–97, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  3. X. M. Chen, J. S. Keithly, C. V. Paya, and N. F. LaRusso, “Cryptosporodiosis,” The New England Journal of Medicine, vol. 346, pp. 1723–1731, 2002. View at Google Scholar
  4. T. Flanigan, C. Whalen, J. Turner et al., “Cryptosporidium infection and CD4 counts,” Annals of Internal Medicine, vol. 116, no. 10, pp. 840–842, 1992. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  5. F. J. Frost, K. Tollestrup, G. F. Craun, C. K. Fairley, M. I. Sinclair, and T. R. Kunde, “Protective immunity associated with a strong serological response to a Cryptosporidium-specific antigen group, in HIV-infected individuals,” Journal of Infectious Diseases, vol. 192, no. 4, pp. 618–621, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  6. I. Abubakar, S. H. Aliyu, C. Arumugam, N. K. Usman, and P. R. Hunter, “Treatment of cryptosporidiosis in immunocompromised individuals: systematic review and meta-analysis,” British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology, vol. 63, no. 4, pp. 387–393, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  7. A. K. Jha, B. Uppal, S. Chadha et al., “Clinical and microbiological profile of HIV/AIDS cases with Diarrhea in North India,” Journal of Pathogens, vol. 2012, Article ID 971958, 2012. View at Google Scholar
  8. O. Y. Bushen, A. Kohli, R. C. Pinkerton et al., “Heavy cryptosporidial infections in children in northeast Brazil: comparison of Cryptosporidium hominis and Cryptosporidium parvum,” Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene, vol. 101, no. 4, pp. 378–384, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  9. M. Joshi, A. S. Chowdhary, P. J. Dalal, and J. K. Maniar, “Parasitic diarrhoea in patients with AIDS,” National Medical Journal of India, vol. 15, no. 2, pp. 72–74, 2002. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  10. K. Kaushik, S. Khurana, A. Wanchu, and N. Malla, “Evaluation of staining techniques, antigen detection and nested PCR for the diagnosis of cryptosporidiosis in HIV seropositive and seronegative patients,” Acta Tropica, vol. 107, no. 1, pp. 1–7, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  11. S. V. Kulkarni, R. Kairon, S. S. Sane et al., “Opportunistic parasitic infections in HIV/AIDS patients presenting with diarrhoea by the level of immunesuppression,” Indian Journal of Medical Research, vol. 130, no. 1, pp. 63–66, 2009. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  12. S. B. Mannheimer and R. Soave, “Protozoal infections in patients with AIDS: Cryptosporidiosis, isosporiasis, cyclosporiasis, and microsporidiosis,” Infectious Disease Clinics of North America, vol. 8, no. 2, pp. 483–498, 1994. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  13. A. Clavel, A. C. Arnal, E. C. Sánchez et al., “Evaluation of the optimal number of faecal specimens in the diagnosis of cryptosporidiosis in AIDS and immunocompetent patients,” European Journal of Clinical Microbiology & Infectious Diseases, vol. 14, no. 1, pp. 46–49, 1995. View at Google Scholar
  14. W. L. Current and L. S. García, “Cryptosporidiosis,” Clinical Microbiology Reviews, vol. 4, pp. 325–358, 1991. View at Google Scholar
  15. R. Weber, R. T. Bryan, H. S. Bishop, S. P. Wahlquist, J. J. Sullivan, and D. D. Juranek, “Threshold of detection of Cryptosporidium oocysts in human stool specimens: evidence for low sensitivity of current diagnostic methods,” Journal of Clinical Microbiology, vol. 29, no. 7, pp. 1323–1327, 1991. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  16. S. Khurana, P. Sharma, A. Sharma, and N. Malla, “Evaluation of Ziehl-Neelsen staining, auramine phenol staining, antigen detection enzyme linked immunosorbent assay and polymerase chain reaction, for the diagnosis of intestinal cryptosporidiosis,” Tropical Parasitology, vol. 2, pp. 20–23, 2012. View at Google Scholar
  17. T. Hanscheid, J. M. Cristino, and M. J. Salgado, “Screening of auramine-stained smears of all fecal samples is a rapid and inexpensive way to increase the detection of coccidial infections,” International Journal of Infectious Diseases, vol. 12, no. 1, pp. 47–50, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  18. A. B. Balatbat, G. W. Jordan, Y. J. Tang, and J. Silva Jr., “Detection of Cryptospondium parvum DNA in human feces by nested PCR,” Journal of Clinical Microbiology, vol. 34, no. 7, pp. 1769–1772, 1996. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  19. M. A. Laxer, B. K. Timblin, and R. J. Patel, “DNA sequences for the specific detection of Cryptosporidium parvum by the polymerase chain reaction,” American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene, vol. 45, no. 6, pp. 688–694, 1991. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  20. K. B. Mullis and F. A. Faloona, “Specific synthesis of DNA in vitro via a polymerase-catalyzed chain reaction,” Methods in Enzymology, vol. 155, pp. 335–350, 1987. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  21. S. Ogata, T. Suganuma, C. Okadac, K. Inoue, A. Kinoshita, and K. Sato, “A case of sporadic intestinal cryptosporidiosis diagnosed by endoscopic biopsy,” Acta Medica Okayama, vol. 63, no. 5, pp. 287–291, 2009. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  22. F. G. Crawford and S. H. Vermund, “Human cryptosporidiosis,” Critical Reviews in Microbiology, vol. 16, pp. 113–159, 1998. View at Google Scholar
  23. D. R. Shlim, M. T. Cohen, M. Eaton, R. Rajah, E. G. Long, and B. L. P. Ungar, “An alga-like organism associated with an outbreak of prolonged diarrhea among foreigners in Nepal,” American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene, vol. 45, no. 3, pp. 383–389, 1991. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  24. R. M. Chalmers, B. M. Campbell, N. Crouch, A. Charlett, and A. P. Davies, “Comparison of diagnostic sensitivity and specificity of seven Cryptosporidium assays used in the UK,” Journal of Medical Microbiology, vol. 60, no. 11, pp. 1598–1604, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  25. T. Weitzel, S. Dittrich, I. Möhl, E. Adusu, and T. Jelinek, “Evaluation of seven commercial antigen detection tests for Giardia and Cryptosporidium in stool samples,” Clinical Microbiology and Infection, vol. 12, no. 7, pp. 656–659, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  26. U. M. Morgan, L. Pallant, B. W. Dwyer, D. A. Forbes, G. Rich, and R. C. A. Thompson, “Comparison of PCR and microscopy for detection of Cryptosporidium parvum in human fecal specimens: clinical trial,” Journal of Clinical Microbiology, vol. 36, no. 4, pp. 995–998, 1998. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  27. K. A. Webster, J. D. E. Pow, M. Giles, J. Catchpole, and M. J. Woodward, “Detection of Cryptosporidium parvum using a specific polymerase chain reaction,” Veterinary Parasitology, vol. 50, no. 1-2, pp. 35–44, 1993. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  28. P. Gobet, J. C. Buisson, O. Vagner et al., “Detection of Cryptosporidium parvum DNA in formed human feces by a sensitive PCR-based assay including uracil-N-glycosylase inactivation,” Journal of Clinical Microbiology, vol. 35, no. 1, pp. 254–256, 1997. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  29. J.-R. Yu, S.-U. Lee, and W.-Y. Park, “Comparative sensitivity of PCR primer sets for detection of Cryptosporidium parvum,” Korean Journal of Parasitology, vol. 47, no. 3, pp. 293–297, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  30. K. Ramakrishnan, R. Shenbagarathai, A. Uma, K. Kavitha, R. Rajendran, and P. Thirumalaikolundusubramanian, “Prevalence of intestinal parasitic infestation in HIV/AIDS patients with diarrhea in Madurai City, south India,” Japanese Journal of Infectious Diseases, vol. 60, no. 4, pp. 209–210, 2007. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  31. S. Sehgal, U. Datta, S. Mujtaba, A. Sood, and V. K. Vinayak, “Cellular and serological markers of disease activity in Indian patients with HIV/AIDS,” Methods in Cell Science, vol. 24, no. 1–3, pp. 107–114, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  32. K. Ray, S. M. Gupta, M. Bala, S. Muralidhar, and J. Kumar, “CD4/CD8 lymphocyte counts in healthy, HIV-positive individuals & AIDS patients,” Indian Journal of Medical Research, vol. 124, no. 3, pp. 319–330, 2006. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  33. S. N. Misra, D. Sengupta, and S. K. Satpathy, “Aids in India: recent trends in opportunistic infections,” Southeast Asian Journal of Tropical Medicine and Public Health, vol. 29, no. 2, pp. 373–376, 1998. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  34. L. Tuli, D. K. Singh, A. K. Gulati, S. Sundar, and T. M. Mohapatra, “A multiattribute utility evaluation of different methods for the detection of enteric protozoa causing diarrhea in AIDS patients,” BMC Microbiology, vol. 10, article 11, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  35. H. V. Smith, “Diagnostics,” in Cryptosporidium and Cryptosporidiosis, R. Fayer and L. Xiao, Eds., pp. 173–208, CRC Press and IWA Publishing, 2nd edition, 2008. View at Google Scholar