Figure 2: The mechanisms of amphotericin B resistance in Leishmania. (a) Change in membrane fluidity results in blocking of the drug entry inside the cell. The membrane transporters or factors responsible for such changes in membrane depolarization are still unknown. (b) Gene amplification of genes to confer resistance. (c) Activation of tryparedoxin cascade to prevent the oxidative damage caused by the drug. (d) Drug efflux through various membrane-bound pumps like MDR1.