Table of Contents Author Guidelines Submit a Manuscript
Journal of Parasitology Research
Volume 2015 (2015), Article ID 607432, 8 pages
Research Article

Trypanosoma Infection Rates in Glossina Species in Mtito Andei Division, Makueni County, Kenya

1Department of Biological Sciences, Embu University College, P.O. Box 6, Embu 60100, Kenya
2School of Biological Sciences, University of Nairobi, P.O. Box 30197, Nairobi 00100, Kenya
3Kenya Medical Research Institute, Center for Virus Research, P.O. Box 54840, Nairobi 00200, Kenya
4Department of Agricultural Resource Management, Embu University College, P.O. Box 6, Embu 60100, Kenya

Received 17 August 2015; Revised 14 October 2015; Accepted 15 October 2015

Academic Editor: José F. Silveira

Copyright © 2015 Daniel Mutiso Nthiwa et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


African Animal Trypanosomiasis (AAT) transmitted cyclically by tsetse fly (Glossina spp.) is a major obstacle to livestock production in the tropical parts of Africa. The objective of this study was to determine the infection rates of trypanosomes in Glossina species in Mtito Andei Division, Makueni County, Kenya. Tsetse fly species, G. longipennis and G. pallidipes, were trapped and DNA was isolated from their dissected internal organs (proboscis, salivary glands, and midguts). The DNA was then subjected to a nested PCR assay using internal transcribed spacer primers and individual trypanosome species were identified following agarose gel electrophoresis. Out of the 117 flies trapped in the area 39 (33.3%) were teneral while 78 (67%) were nonteneral. G. pallidipes constituted the largest percentage of 58% while G. longipennis were 42%. The overall trypanosomes infection rate in all nonteneral Glossina spp. was 11.53% with G. longipennis recording the highest infection rate of 23.08% while G. pallidipes had an infection rate of 5.77%. T. vivax was the most infectious (10.26%) compared to T. congolense (1.28%). Mean apparent densities were strongly positively correlated with infection rates () confirming the importance of this parameter as an indicator of AAT transmission risk.