Journal of Parasitology Research The latest articles from Hindawi © 2018 , Hindawi Limited . All rights reserved. Enteroparasites in Riverside Settlements in the Pantanal Wetlands Ecosystem Tue, 16 Jan 2018 00:00:00 +0000 Background. Intestinal parasites are a major source of health problems in developing countries, where socioeconomic, cultural, and environmental conditions contribute in maintaining the biological cycles of various parasites and facilitating their spread. The objective of this study, conducted in Corumbá, Mato Grosso do Sul state, Brazil, was to investigate the occurrence of intestinal parasites in riverside communities in the South Pantanal wetlands and conduct educational interventions focused on health and environmental preservation. Method. In total, 196 stool samples were tested for parasites using the merthiolate-iodine-formaldehyde concentration (MIFC) technique and spontaneous sedimentation and educational activities were carried out. Results. Enteroparasite prevalence was 72% (65.6–78.2%; 95% CI). Of the 141 positive cases, monoparasitism was found in 34.7%, biparasitism in 23%, and polyparasitism in 14.3%. Entamoeba coli was the most frequent protozoan (70.2%). Among helminths, hookworms were the most prevalent. Enteroparasitosis prevalence did not differ for sex or place of abode but proved higher in individuals older than 10 years. Conclusion. The high positivity rate for enteroparasites found for the communities stems from lack of sanitation and poor personal and environmental hygiene habits, indicating that effective health policies and educational interventions are needed to reduce the current risk levels. Patrícia Vieira da Silva, Lucimare dos Santos Maciel, Ludiele Souza Castro, Paula Guerra Murat, Minoru German Higa Junior, Patrícia Honorato Zerlotti, Ana Rita Coimbra Motta-Castro, Elenir Rose Jardim Cury Pontes, and Maria Elizabeth Cavalheiros Dorval Copyright © 2018 Patrícia Vieira da Silva et al. All rights reserved. Performance of Laboratory Professionals Working on Malaria Microscopy in Tigray, North Ethiopia Tue, 19 Dec 2017 00:00:00 +0000 Background. Microscopic analysis of stained blood smear is the most suitable method of malaria diagnosis. However, gaps were observed among clinical laboratory professionals in microscopic diagnosis of malaria. Methods. A cross-sectional study was conducted in December 2015 among 46 laboratory professionals. Data was collected via on-site assessment and panel testing. The slide panel testing was composed of positive and negative slides. The kappa score was used to estimate the agreement between participants and reference reader. Results. The overall agreement between the study participants and the reference reader in malaria detection was 79% (kappa = 0.62). Participating in refresher training on malaria microscopy (Adjusted Odds Ratio (AOR = 7, CI = 1.5–36.3)) and malaria epidemic investigation (AOR = 4.1 CI = 1.1–14.5) had statistical significant association with detection rate of malaria parasites. Conclusion. Laboratory professionals showed low performance in malaria microscopy. Most of the study participants were graded “in-training” in laboratory diagnosis of malaria. Megbaru Alemu, Desalegn Tadesse, Tesfaye Hailu, Wondemagegn Mulu, Awoke Derbie, Tadesse Hailu, and Bayeh Abera Copyright © 2017 Megbaru Alemu et al. All rights reserved. In Vivo Antimalarial Activity of the Solvent Fractions of Fruit Rind and Root of Carica papaya Linn (Caricaceae) against Plasmodium berghei in Mice Sun, 17 Dec 2017 09:03:58 +0000 Background. Currently, antimalarial drug resistance poses a serious challenge. This stresses the need for newer antimalarial compounds. Carica papaya is used traditionally and showed in vitro antimalarial activity. This study attempted to evaluate in vivo antimalarial activity of C. papaya in mice. Methods. In vivo antimalarial activity of solvent fractions of the plant was carried out against early P. berghei infection in mice. Parasitemia, temperature, PCV, and body weight of mice were recorded. Windows SPSS version 16 (one-way ANOVA followed by Tukey’s post hoc test) was used for data analysis. Results. The pet ether and chloroform fractions of C. papaya fruit rind and root produced a significant () chemosuppressive effect. A maximum parasite suppression of 61.78% was produced by pet ether fraction of C. papaya fruit rind in the highest dose (400 mg/kg/day). Only 400 mg/kg/day dose of chloroform fraction of C. papaya root exhibited a parasite suppression effect (48.11%). But, methanol fraction of the plant parts produced less chemosuppressive effect. Conclusion. Pet ether fraction of C. papaya fruit rind had the highest antimalarial activity and could be a potential source of lead compound. Further study should be done to show the chemical and metabolomic profile of active ingredients. Gemechu Zeleke, Dereje Kebebe, Eshetu Mulisa, and Fanta Gashe Copyright © 2017 Gemechu Zeleke et al. All rights reserved. Intra-Abdominal Hydatid Cyst: Sociodemographics, Clinical Profiles, and Outcomes of Patients Operated on at a Tertiary Hospital in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia Tue, 12 Dec 2017 06:28:59 +0000 Background. Hydatid cyst is caused by the tapeworm Echinococcus granulosus. The abdomen, specifically the liver, is the most common site affected. Objective. Determine the presentation patterns, types of surgical management, and outcomes of patients operated for intra-abdominal hydatid cyst (IAHC). Methodology. A retrospective descriptive study of patients admitted and operated for IAHC from September 1, 2011, to August 31, 2015. Results. Forty-two patients whose age ranged from 10 to 65 (mean of 37 years) were operated on. Females comprised 27 (64.3%) of the patients. The commonest presenting complaint was abdominal pain (41, 97.6%). Abdominal mass was documented in 23 (54.7%) cases. Abdominal ultrasound (AUS) and CT were the main imaging studies done on 38 (90.5%) and 24 (57.1%) patients, respectively. Cysts measuring more than 10 cm in diameter were the most common finding in both studies. Liver was the primary site involved, 30 (71.4%) cases, the right lobe being the main side, 73%. Thirty-eight (90.5%) patients underwent deroofing, evacuation, marsupialization, and omentoplasty (DEMO). There was no perioperative death, but 4 (9.5%) of the patients had post-op complications. Conclusion. Abdominal pain was the most common presenting complaint. AUS and CT remain the preferred imaging. DEMO was the most common surgery. Engida Abebe, Temesgen Kassa, Mahteme Bekele, and Ayelign Tsehay Copyright © 2017 Engida Abebe et al. All rights reserved. Frequency of Toxocariasis among Patients Clinically Suspected to Have Visceral Toxocariasis: A Retrospective Descriptive Study in Sri Lanka Wed, 06 Dec 2017 00:00:00 +0000 Introduction. Human toxocariasis is caused by several species of the nematode Toxocara. Two common clinical syndromes are ocular and visceral larva migrans. Objectives. To determine the Toxocara antibody positivity in clinically suspected VLM patients and to describe demographic factors and clinical manifestations of seropositive patients. Methods. 522 clinically suspected patients were studied between 1993 and 2014. Relevant data was gathered from referral letters. Serum samples were subjected to Toxocara antigen ELISA. Results. Overall, seropositivity was 50.2% (262), of which 109 (40.8%) were positive at high level of Toxocara antibody carriage and 153 (58.4%) were positive at low levels. The seropositives ranged from 3 months to 70 years (mean = 7.8). Younger age group had higher levels of seropositivity and it was statistically significant. Majority of children under 5 years were seropositive (47.7%, ). Seropositivity was common in males (55.3%, ). Clinical manifestations of seropositives include lymphadenopathy (24.1%) skin rash (22.5%), dyspnoea (21.7%), fever (21%), hepatosplenomegaly (9.2%), and abdominal pain (3.8%). 197 (75.2%) seropositive cases had eosinophilia. These symptoms were not statistically significant. Conclusions. This study confirms toxocariasis as an important cause of childhood ill health identifying common clinical symptoms recommending preventive measures to limit transmission. Devika Iddawela, Kiruthiha Ehambaram, Dhilma Atapattu, Kalyani Pethiyagoda, and Lakmalee Bandara Copyright © 2017 Devika Iddawela et al. All rights reserved. Cysticercus fasciolaris in Brown Rats (Rattus norvegicus) in Grenada, West Indies Sun, 26 Nov 2017 00:00:00 +0000 Cat is the definitive host of Taenia taeniaeformis (T. taeniaeformis). Cysticercus fasciolaris (C. fasciolaris), the larval stage of T. taeniaeformis, develops in small rodents which act as intermediate host. The aim of this study was to estimate the prevalence of C. fasciolaris in brown rats (Rattus norvegicus) in the densely human populated parishes, St. George’s and St. David’s of Grenada, West Indies. One hundred and seventy rats were trapped near the residential areas from May to July, 2017 and examined for C. fasciolaris in their liver. Of the 170 rats 115 (67.6%, CI 95% from 60.1 to 74.6) were positive for the larval stage of T. taeniaeformis. One to three cysts were observed in each liver, containing a single larva in each cyst. The prevalence was 77.9% in St. George and 59.1% in St. David which is a significant difference () between the two parishes under study. Based on gender, prevalence in males was 60.9% and females 74.7%. Significant difference was observed between young and adult rats (). Prevalence in young rats was 45.0% compared to adults (70.7%). Further study of risk assessment in the cat population in areas of the present research is strongly suggested. Ravindra Sharma, Keshaw Tiwari, Kristen Birmingham, Elan Armstrong, Andrea Montanez, Reneka Guy, Yvette Sepulveda, Veronica Mapp-Alexander, and Claude DeAllie Copyright © 2017 Ravindra Sharma et al. All rights reserved. The Effect of Deworming Using Triple-Dose Albendazole on Nutritional Status of Children in Perobatang Village, Southwest Sumba, Indonesia Wed, 08 Nov 2017 07:20:54 +0000 High prevalence of STH leads to malnutrition, anemia, cognitive impairment, and growth disorders. Triple-dose albendazole 400 mg is a broad-spectrum anthelminthic; however, its effectiveness varies in every region. This study aims to determine the benefits of deworming using triple-dose albendazole on children’s nutritional status in Perobatang Village, Southwest Sumba, Indonesia. This pre-post study was conducted in July 2016 and January 2017. Children aged 1–15 years were asked to collect stool for diagnosis of STH infection (Kato-Katz method), were measured for anthropometry status to obtain the nutritional status, and took albendazole 400 mg for three consecutive days. Data was analyzed with SPSS version 20. Prevalence of STH prior to the treatment was 95.4%: T. trichiura 85.2%, A. lumbricoides 71.6%, and hookworm 18.2%. After treatment, prevalence of STH decreased significantly (McNemar test, ) to 53.4%, (T. trichiura 39.8%, A. lumbricoides 22.7%, and hookworm 1.1%). Before treatment, 33% participants were in normal nutritional status, 47.7% underweight, and 19.3% severely underweight. After treatment, children in normal nutritional status increased to 75%, underweight children decreased to 25%, and there were no severely underweight children. In conclusion, deworming with triple-dose albendazole 400 mg is effective in improving the nutritional status of children in Perobatang Village. Saleha Sungkar, Asri S. Ridwan, and Gladys Kusumowidagdo Copyright © 2017 Saleha Sungkar et al. All rights reserved. TLR Specific Immune Responses against Helminth Infections Tue, 31 Oct 2017 00:00:00 +0000 Despite marked improvement in the quality of lives across the globe, more than 2 million individuals in socioeconomically disadvantaged environments remain infected by helminth (worm) parasites. Owing to the longevity of the worms and paucity of immunologic controls, these parasites survive for long periods within the bloodstream, lymphatics, and gastrointestinal tract resulting in pathologic conditions such as anemia, cirrhosis, and lymphatic filariasis. Despite infection, an asymptomatic state may be maintained by the host immunoregulatory environment, which involves multiple levels of regulatory cells and cytokines; a breakdown of this regulation is observed in pathological disease. The role of TLR expression and function in relation to intracellular parasites has been documented but limited studies are available for multicellular helminth parasites. In this review, we discuss the unique and shared host effector mechanisms elicited by systemic helminth parasites and their derived products, including the role of TLRs and sphingolipids. Understanding and exploiting the interactions between these parasites and the host regulatory network are likely to highlight new strategies to control both infectious and immunological diseases. Sivaprakasam Rajasekaran, Rajamanickam Anuradha, and Ramalingam Bethunaickan Copyright © 2017 Sivaprakasam Rajasekaran et al. All rights reserved. New Scenarios of Chagas Disease Transmission in Northern Colombia Tue, 26 Sep 2017 09:32:54 +0000 Chagas disease (CD) is a systemic parasitic infection caused by the flagellated form of Trypanosoma cruzi. Córdoba department, located in the Colombian Caribbean Coast, was not considered as a region at risk of T. cruzi transmission. In this article, we describe the first acute CD case in Salitral village in Sahagún, Córdoba, confirmed by microscopy and serological tests. Our results draw attention to a new scenario of transmission of acute CD in nonendemic areas of Colombia and highlight the need to include CD in the differential diagnosis of febrile syndromes in this region. Catalina Tovar Acero, Jorge Negrete Peñata, Camila González, Cielo León, Mario Ortiz, Julio Chacón Pacheco, Elkin Monterrosa, Abraham Luna, Dina Ricardo Caldera, and Lyda Espitia-Pérez Copyright © 2017 Catalina Tovar Acero et al. All rights reserved. Profile of Geohelminth Eggs, Cysts, and Oocysts of Protozoans Contaminating the Soils of Ten Primary Schools in Dschang, West Cameroon Sun, 17 Sep 2017 09:47:56 +0000 Helminthiasis and protozoans infections have been recognized as an important public health problem. The aim of the present study was to screen soil samples collected from 10 primary schools in the city of Dschang for the presence of soil-transmitted helminth eggs, cysts, and oocysts of protozoans. A total of 400 soil samples were collected around latrines, at playgrounds, and behind classrooms in each school. These samples were examined using the sucrose flotation method. From the result obtained, an overall contamination rate of 7.75% was observed. Five genera of nematodes (Ascaris, Trichuris, Capillaria, Cooperia, and hookworms) were identified, while neither cysts nor oocysts of protozoans were detected. The contamination rate and the number of species found were significantly different in wet season as compared to the dry season. During the rainy season, this rate was 12.5% with all the parasitic stages identified, while, in the dry season, the soil contamination rate was 3% with the presence of only two genera (Ascaris and Trichuris). This suggests that parasite infection may occur mainly in rainy season rather than in the dry season. The most common eggs were those of Ascaris with 2% and 5% contamination rates in the dry and rainy seasons, respectively. Also, the soils around latrines were more contaminated (11.9%) as compared to those collected behind classrooms (7.5%) and those at playground (2.5%). It was concluded that the pupils of these schools may have played a major role in the contamination of their environment. Thus, sanitary education, enforcement of basic rules of hygiene, and deworming remain a necessity in the entire population of the study area in general and in the schools in particular in order to prevent helminth infections and to ensure effective environmental health. Vanessa Rosine Nkouayep, Blandine Ngatou Tchakounté, and Josué Wabo Poné Copyright © 2017 Vanessa Rosine Nkouayep et al. All rights reserved. Prevalence of Intestinal Helminths Infestation in Children Attending Princess Marie Louise Children’s Hospital in Accra, Ghana Tue, 05 Sep 2017 07:00:11 +0000 The deworming exercise program does not cover all children who are not in school. This study determined the prevalence and species type of helminth infestation and associated factors among children attending Princess Marie Louise Children’s Hospital in Accra, Ghana. Children (225) below the age of 10 who have not taken antihelminthic drugs prior to the study period were recruited between May and June 2015. Children or guardians were interviewed using structured questionnaires and fresh stools were collected and processed for helminths species identification using microscopy. Data were analyzed using Stata version 12. Overall helminths infestation prevalence was 17.33% (39/225). The identified species were hookworm (10.22% (23/225)) and Ascaris lumbricoides (7.11% (16/225)). No double infestation was observed. Significant associations were observed between infestation and age group beyond 4 years (48 months) (aOR = 16.72, 95% CI 1.00–279.72), place of residence (aOR = 7.35, 95% CI 1.68–32.11), washing hands after using toilet (0.04, 95% CI 0.01–0.20), and dirt on fingernails of children (7.96, 95% CI 1.73–36.65). This study demonstrates high prevalence of helminths parasites, hookworm, and Ascaris lumbricoides in children attending PMLCH. Deworming exercise should be extended to children hospitals in developing countries. Robert Mirisho, Margaret L. Neizer, and Bismark Sarfo Copyright © 2017 Robert Mirisho et al. All rights reserved. Selecting PCR for the Diagnosis of Intestinal Parasitosis: Choice of Targets, Evaluation of In-House Assays, and Comparison with Commercial Kits Wed, 30 Aug 2017 09:09:09 +0000 Microscopy of stool samples is a labour-intensive and inaccurate technique for detection of intestinal parasites causing diarrhoea and replacement by PCR is attractive. Almost all cases of diarrhoea induced by parasites over a nine-year period in our laboratory were due to Giardia lamblia, Cryptosporidium species, or Entamoeba histolytica detected by microscopy. We evaluated and selected in-house singleplex real-time PCR (RT-PCR) assays for these pathogens in 99 stool samples from patients suspected of having intestinal parasitosis tested by microscopy. The strategy included a genus-specific PCR assay for C. parvum and C. hominis, with subsequent identification by a PCR that distinguishes between the two species. G. lamblia was detected in five and C. parvum in one out of 68 microscopy-negative samples. The performance of the in-house RT-PCR assays was compared to three commercially available multiplex test (MT-PCR) kit systems in 81 stool samples, collected in 28 microscopy-positive and 27 microscopy-negative samples from individuals suspected of intestinal parasitosis and in 26 samples from individuals without suspicion of parasitic infection. The in-house assays detected parasites in more samples from patients suspected of having parasitosis than did any of the kits. We conclude that commercial kits are targeting relevant parasites, but their performance may vary. G. N. Hartmeyer, S. V. Hoegh, M. N. Skov, R. B. Dessau, and M. Kemp Copyright © 2017 G. N. Hartmeyer et al. All rights reserved. Investigations on the Occurrence and Associated Risk Factors of Avian Coccidiosis in Osun State, Southwestern Nigeria Thu, 24 Aug 2017 08:26:43 +0000 Avian coccidiosis is one of the most important diseases of poultry and it is responsible for a large number of poultry mortalities worldwide. This study was carried out to investigate the occurrence and associated risk factors of avian coccidiosis in Osun State, Nigeria. Fecal samples were collected and examined from 5,544 avian species that were brought for treatment at the state veterinary hospitals over a 10-year period. Parameters such as age, sex, season, and species of birds were determined. Also, the months of the year were taken into consideration. Overall prevalence of 41.3% was recorded. The year specific rate for avian coccidiosis was highest in 2007 (97.9%) and lowest in 2006 (0.4%), while the month-specific rate was highest in November (85.7%) and lowest in July 2006 (13.3%). There was a significantly () higher prevalence in young birds compared to adults, in males compared to females, and during the wet season compared to the dry season. Broilers (99.8%) and cockerels (81.0%) were the bird types with the highest prevalence rate. The high prevalence of avian coccidiosis in the study area shows that the disease is endemic and there is need to embark on a radical preventive measure to curtail the disease. Shola David Ola-Fadunsin Copyright © 2017 Shola David Ola-Fadunsin. All rights reserved. Medically Important Parasites Carried by Cockroaches in Melong Subdivision, Littoral, Cameroon Sun, 20 Aug 2017 00:00:00 +0000 Cockroaches have been recognized as mechanical vectors of pathogens that can infest humans or animals. A total of 844 adult cockroaches (436 males and 408 females) were caught. In the laboratory, cockroaches were first washed in saturated salt solution to remove ectoparasites and then rinsed with 70% alcohol, dried, and dissected for endoparasites. An overall transport rate of 47.39% was recorded. Six genera of parasites were identified. These were Ascaris (33.76%), Trichuris (11.97%), Capillaria (6.16%), Toxocara (4.86%), Hook Worm (4.86%), and Eimeria (2.73%). The parasites were more recorded on the external surface (54.27%) of cockroaches than in the internal surface (GIT, 38.51%). The same tendency was obtained between sexes with female cockroaches having a higher transport rate (36.69%). Cockroaches caught in toilets carried more parasites (31.99%) as compared to those from kitchens (22.63%) and houses (11.14%). Almost all encountered parasites were recognized as responsible of zoonosis and they can be consequently released in nature by hosts and easily disseminated by cockroaches as mechanical vectors. Sanitary education, reenforcement of worms’ eradication programs, and the fight against these insects remain a necessity in the Mélong Subdivision. R. J. Atiokeng Tatang, H. G. Tsila, and J. Wabo Poné Copyright © 2017 R. J. Atiokeng Tatang et al. All rights reserved. Identification, Characterization, and Structure of Tm16 from Trichuris muris Mon, 14 Aug 2017 00:00:00 +0000 Trichuriasis is a disease of poverty for which excretory and secretory (ES) products that induce the protective immunity are being investigated as candidate vaccines antigens. In this study, ES products of T. muris and immune sera were produced. The immune sera recognized more than 20 proteins on a 2D-gel of ES products of T. muris adult worms. Tm16 was one of the proteins identified by mass spectrometry. Tm16 shares 57% sequence identity with Ov16, an immunodominant diagnostic antigen from Onchocerca volvulus. Recombinant Tm16 with a carboxyl terminal hexahistidine was produced using Pichia pastoris. Polyclonal antibodies against rTm16 were generated by one-prime and two-boost immunization of three female Balb/c mice with 25 μg of recombinant Tm16 emulsified with ISA720 adjuvant. These polyclonal antibodies confirmed that Tm16 is localized to the ES products and the soluble fraction of the adult worm. Additionally, the high-resolution crystal structure of Tm16 was solved by molecular replacement. Tm16 belongs to the phosphatidylethanolamine-binding-like protein (PEBP1) family and this is the first structure of a PEBP1 from a parasite. Zhuyun Liu, Alan Kelleher, Shanii Tabb, Junfei Wei, Jeroen Pollet, Peter J. Hotez, Maria Elena Bottazzi, Bin Zhan, and Oluwatoyin A. Asojo Copyright © 2017 Zhuyun Liu et al. All rights reserved. Molecular Cloning and Characterization of Babesia orientalis Rhoptry Neck 2 BoRON2 Protein Sun, 09 Jul 2017 08:30:59 +0000 Babesiosis caused by Babesia orientalis is one of the most prevalent infections of water buffalo transmitted by Rhipicephalus haemaphysaloides causing a parasitic and hemolytic disease. The organelles proteins localized in apical membrane especially rhoptries neck and microneme protein form a complex called moving junction important during invasion process of parasites belonging to apicomplexan group, including Babesia species. A truncated fragment coding a 936 bps fragment was cloned in pMD-19T and subcloned into pET32 (a)+ expression vector, expressed in E. coli BL21. Purified recombinant BoRON2 was used to produce polyclonal antibody against BoRON2. Here, we identified the full sequence of gene encoding the rhoptry neck 2 protein that we named BoRON2 which is 4035 bp in full-length open reading frame without introns, encoding a polypeptide of 1345 amino acids. Western blot of rBoRON2 probed with buffalo positive serum analysis revealed a band of around 150 kDa in parasite lysates, suggesting an active involvement during invasion process. These findings most likely are constructive in perspective of ongoing research focused particularly on water buffalo babesiosis prevention and therapeutics and globally provide new information for genes comparative analysis. Ngabu Malobi, Lan He, Long Yu, Pei He, Junwei He, Yali Sun, Yuan Huang, and Junlong Zhao Copyright © 2017 Ngabu Malobi et al. All rights reserved. A Brief View of the Surface Membrane Proteins from Trypanosoma cruzi Mon, 05 Jun 2017 00:00:00 +0000 Trypanosoma cruzi is the causal agent of Chagas’ disease which affects millions of people around the world mostly in Central and South America. T. cruzi expresses a wide variety of proteins on its surface membrane which has an important role in the biology of these parasites. Surface molecules of the parasites are the result of the environment to which the parasites are exposed during their life cycle. Hence, T. cruzi displays several modifications when they move from one host to another. Due to the complexity of this parasite’s cell surface, this review presents some membrane proteins organized as large families, as they are the most abundant and/or relevant throughout the T. cruzi membrane. Ángel de la Cruz Pech-Canul, Victor Monteón, and Rosa-Lidia Solís-Oviedo Copyright © 2017 Ángel de la Cruz Pech-Canul et al. All rights reserved. Prevalence and Correlates of Intestinal Parasites among Patients Admitted to Mirembe National Mental Health Hospital, Dodoma, Tanzania Mon, 22 May 2017 10:03:19 +0000 Background. Neglected tropical diseases continue to be one of the leading causes of morbidity and mortality in the developing world. Psychiatric patients are among groups at risk for parasitic infection although control and monitoring programs largely overlook this population. This study aimed at determining prevalence and factors associated with intestinal parasitic infection among patients admitted to a psychiatric facility. Method. The study followed cross-sectional design; all the residing patients that met the inclusion criteria were included in the survey. Stool samples were collected and examined by direct wet preparation and formol-ether concentration. Data were analyzed with STATA version 12.1; Chi-square test was computed to determine the level of significance at value < 0.05. Results. Of all 233 patients who returned the stool samples, 29 (12.45%) screened were positive for an intestinal parasite. There was no significant association between parasite carriage and age, sex, or duration of hospital stay. Conclusion. The study shows that intestinal parasitic infection is common among patients in a psychiatric facility and highlights that parasitic infections that enter through skin penetration may be a more common mode of transmission than the oral route. Furthermore, the study underscores the need for surveillance and intervention programs to control and manage these infections. Azan A. Nyundo, David Z. Munisi, and Ainory P. Gesase Copyright © 2017 Azan A. Nyundo et al. All rights reserved. In Vitro Assessment of Anthelmintic Activities of Rauwolfia vomitoria (Apocynaceae) Stem Bark and Roots against Parasitic Stages of Schistosoma mansoni and Cytotoxic Study Tue, 28 Feb 2017 06:23:52 +0000 Schistosomiasis is a Neglected Tropical Diseases which can be prevented with mass deworming chemotherapy. The reliance on a single drug, praziquantel, is a motivation for the search of novel antischistosomal compounds. This study investigated the anthelmintic activity of the stem bark and roots of Rauwolfia vomitoria against two life stages of Schistosoma mansoni. Both plant parts were found to be active against cercariae and adult worms. Within 2 h of exposure all cercariae were killed at a concentration range of 62.5–1000 µg/mL and 250–1000 µg/mL of R. vomitoria stem bark and roots, respectively. The LC50 values determined for the stem bark after 1 and 2 h of exposure were 207.4 and 61.18 µg/mL, respectively. All adult worms exposed to the concentrations range of 250–1000 µg/mL for both plant parts died within 120 h of incubation. The cytotoxic effects against HepG2 and Chang liver cell assessed using MTT assay method indicated that both plant extracts which were inhibitory to the proliferation of cell lines with IC50 > 20 μg/mL appear to be safe. This report provides the first evidence of in vitro schistosomicidal potency of R. vomitoria with the stem bark being moderately, but relatively, more active and selective against schistosome parasites. This suggests the presence of promising medicinal constituent(s). Emmanuel Mouafo Tekwu, Kwabena Mante Bosompem, William Kofi Anyan, Regina Appiah-Opong, Kofi Baffour-Awuah Owusu, Mabel Deladem Tettey, Felicia Amanfo Kissi, Alfred Ampomah Appiah, Veronique Penlap Beng, and Alexander Kwadwo Nyarko Copyright © 2017 Emmanuel Mouafo Tekwu et al. All rights reserved. Construction of Two mCherry Plasmids (pXG-mCherry) for Transgenic Leishmania: Valuable Tools for Future Molecular Analysis Mon, 13 Feb 2017 00:00:00 +0000 Leishmania is the causative agent of leishmaniasis, a neglected tropical disease that affects more than 12 million people around the world. Current treatments are toxic and poorly effective due to the acquisition of resistance within Leishmania populations. Thus, the pursuit for new antileishmanial drugs is a priority. The available methods for drug screening based on colorimetric assays using vital dyes are time-consuming. Currently, the use of fluorescent reporter proteins is replacing the use of viability indicator dyes. We have constructed two plasmids expressing the red fluorescent protein mCherry with multiple cloning sites (MCS), adequate for N- and C-terminal fusion protein constructs. Our results also show that the improved pXG-mCherry plasmid can be employed for drug screening in vitro. The use of the red fluorescent protein, mCherry, is an easier tool for numerous assays, not only to test pharmacological compounds, but also to determine the subcellular localization of proteins. Andrés Vacas, Conor Sugden, Óscar Velasco-Rodriguez, Miriam Algarabel-Olona, José Peña-Guerrero, Esther Larrea, Celia Fernández-Rubio, and Paul A. Nguewa Copyright © 2017 Andrés Vacas et al. All rights reserved. Strongyloidiasis Current Status with Emphasis in Diagnosis and Drug Research Sun, 22 Jan 2017 09:23:51 +0000 Strongyloidiasis is a parasitic neglected disease caused by the nematode Strongyloides stercoralis affecting 30 to 100 million people worldwide. Complications, strongly associated with alcoholism, organ transplants, and HTLV-1 virus, often arise due to late diagnosis, frequently leading to patient death. Lack of preemptive diagnosis is not the only difficulty when dealing with this parasite, since there are no gold standard diagnostic techniques, and the ones used have problems associated with sensitivity, resulting in false negatives. Treatment is also an issue as ivermectin and benzimidazoles administration leads to inconsistent cure rates and several side effects. Researching new anti-Strongyloides drugs is a difficult task since S. stercoralis does not develop until the adult stages in Mus musculus (with the exception of SCID mice), the main experimental host model. Fortunately, alternative parasite models can be used, namely, Strongyloides ratti and S. venezuelensis. However, even with these models, there are other complications in finding new drugs, which are associated with specific in vitro assay protocol steps, such as larvae decontamination. In this review, we highlight the challenges associated with new drug search, the compounds tested, and a list of published in vitro assay methodologies. We also point out advances being made in strongyloidiasis diagnosis so far. Tiago Mendes, Karen Minori, Marlene Ueta, Danilo Ciccone Miguel, and Silmara Marques Allegretti Copyright © 2017 Tiago Mendes et al. All rights reserved. Coinfection with Schistosoma haematobium and Plasmodium falciparum and Anaemia Severity among Pregnant Women in Munyenge, Mount Cameroon Area: A Cross-Sectional Study Wed, 11 Jan 2017 11:22:18 +0000 Background. Malaria and urogenital schistosomiasis are coendemic in Mount Cameroon Area. This study investigated the prevalence of S. haematobium, P. falciparum, and coinfections and their effect on anaemia in pregnancy. Methods. Pregnant women reporting for antenatal care (ANC) clinic visit in Munyenge were enrolled. S. haematobium and P. falciparum infections were determined by urine filtration and microscopy, respectively. Haemoglobin (Hb) levels were measured using haemoglobinometer. Of 250 women, 46.8%, 39.2%, and 15.2% had S. haematobium, P. falciparum, and coinfections, respectively. Schistosomes infection was higher in younger women (≤25 years) and those who bathe in and had domestic contact with stream compared with older age (>25 years) women and those who had only domestic contact with stream. Lower infection rate was associated with less water contact (≤2 times/day) compared with more water contact (>2 times/day). Compared with no sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine (SP) usage, malaria parasitaemia was less among women who used SP. Stream usage increased risk of coinfection while less water contact and SP usage decreased its risk. All coinfected cases were anaemic and coinfection accounted for 93.8% of severe anaemia. Conclusion. Coinfection contributes to anaemia severity. Less water contact and SP usage will reduce coinfection in pregnancy in Munyenge. Judith K. Anchang-Kimbi, Dillys Mansoh Elad, Gemain Taiwe Sotoing, and Eric Akum Achidi Copyright © 2017 Judith K. Anchang-Kimbi et al. All rights reserved. Development of a Loop Mediated Isothermal Amplification for Diagnosis of Ascaris lumbricoides in Fecal Samples Tue, 01 Nov 2016 11:32:31 +0000 Ascaris lumbricoides is a nematode parasite that causes the common tropical infection ascariasis in humans. It is also considered among the neglected tropical diseases. Diagnosis relies mainly on microscopy-based methods which are laborious, are limited by low sensitivity, and require high expertise. We have developed a loop mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) for diagnosis of ascariasis in fecal samples, based on the first internal transcribed (ITS-1) spacer region of the ribosomal DNA. We used Primer Explorer V4 software to design primers. Ascaris adult and ova were obtained from naturally infected school children, whose parents/guardians gave consent for their participation in the study. Genomic DNA was extracted using alkaline lysis method and amplified by LAMP at 63°C for 45 minutes. LAMP products were visualized by naked eyes after adding SYBR Green dye and also on agarose gel. LAMP successfully and reliably detected Ascaris DNA from a single egg and in fecal samples. The assay specifically detected Ascaris DNA without amplifying DNA from ova of other parasites which commonly coexist with A. lumbricoides in feces. The developed LAMP assay has great potential for use in ascariasis diagnosis at the point of care and in low infection intensity situation that characterize control and elimination campaigns. Esther A. Shiraho, Agola L. Eric, Ibrahim N. Mwangi, Geoffrey M. Maina, Joseph M. Kinuthia, Martin W. Mutuku, Robert M. Mugambi, Jackson M. Mwandi, and Gerald M. Mkoji Copyright © 2016 Esther A. Shiraho et al. All rights reserved. Immune Profile of Honduran Schoolchildren with Intestinal Parasites: The Skewed Response against Geohelminths Tue, 01 Nov 2016 08:02:10 +0000 Soil-transmitted helminth infections typically induce a type-2 immune response (Th2), but no immunoepidemiological studies have been undertaken in Honduras, an endemic country where the main control strategy is children’s annual deworming. We aimed to characterize the immune profile of Honduran schoolchildren harbouring these parasitoses. Demographic and epidemiological data were obtained through a survey; nutritional status was assessed through anthropometry; intestinal parasites were diagnosed by formol-ether and Kato-Katz; and blood samples were collected to determine immunological markers including Th1/Th2 cytokines, IgE, and eosinophil levels. A total of 225 children participated in the study, all of whom had received deworming during the national campaign five months prior to the study. Trichuriasis and ascariasis prevalence were 22.2% and 20.4%, respectively. Stunting was associated with both age and trichuriasis, whereas ascariasis was associated with sex and household conditions. Helminth infections were strongly associated with eosinophilia and hyper-IgE as well as with a Th2-polarized response (increased levels of IL-13, IL-10, and IL4/IFN- ratios and decreased levels of IFN-). Pathogenic protozoa infections were associated with a Th1 response characterized by elevated levels of IFN- and decreased IL10/IFN- ratios. Even at low prevalence levels, STH infections affect children’s nutrition and play a polarizing role in their immune system. José Antonio Gabrie, María Mercedes Rueda, Carol Anahelka Rodríguez, Maritza Canales, and Ana Lourdes Sanchez Copyright © 2016 José Antonio Gabrie et al. All rights reserved. Multifunctional Thioredoxin-Like Protein from the Gastrointestinal Parasitic Nematodes Strongyloides ratti and Trichuris suis Affects Mucosal Homeostasis Mon, 31 Oct 2016 14:31:42 +0000 The cellular redox state is important for the regulation of multiple functions and is essential for the maintenance of cellular homeostasis and antioxidant defense. In the excretory/secretory (E/S) products of Strongyloides ratti and Trichuris suis sequences for thioredoxin (Trx) and Trx-like protein (Trx-lp) were identified. To characterize the antioxidant Trx-lp and its interaction with the parasite’s mucosal habitat, S. ratti and T. suis Trx-lps were cloned and recombinantly expressed. The primary antioxidative activity was assured by reduction of insulin and IgM. Further analysis applying an in vitro mucosal 3D-cell culture model revealed that the secreted Trx-lps were able to bind to monocytic and intestinal epithelial cells and induce the time-dependent release of cytokines such as TNF-α, IL-22, and TSLP. In addition, the redox proteins also possessed chemotactic activity for monocytic THP-1 cells and fostered epithelial wound healing activity. These results confirm that the parasite-secreted Trx-lps are multifunctional proteins that can affect the host intestinal mucosa. Dana Ditgen, Emmanuela M. Anandarajah, Jan Hansmann, Dominic Winter, Guido Schramm, Klaus D. Erttmann, Eva Liebau, and Norbert W. Brattig Copyright © 2016 Dana Ditgen et al. All rights reserved. The Seroprevalence of Human Cystic Echinococcosis in Iran: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis Study Mon, 17 Oct 2016 11:12:45 +0000 Human cystic echinococcosis (HCE), a zoonotic infection of the larval stage of Echinococcus granulosus, has high effect on public health in human population all around the world. Iran is one of the most important endemic areas in the Middle East. This systematic review and meta-analysis was performed to evaluate the seroprevalence of HCE in Iranian population. An electronic search for articles from 1985 until April 2015 was performed using data bases PubMed, Scopus, Google Scholar, Magiran, IranMedex, Iran Doc, and Scientific Information Database (SID) both in English and in Persian. A random-effects meta-analysis was used to combine results from individual studies. The information was analyzed by STATA version 11.1. A total of 33 articles met our eligibility criteria and were included in a meta-analysis. The pooled estimate of the prevalence of HCE based on random-effects model was estimated 6.0% (95% CI: 4.0%, 7.0%). The prevalence of the disease significantly increased with age and prevalence rate in males was significantly lower than females (). The using of CIE or CCIEP method was also significantly greater than the other methods (). There was a publication bias in prevalence of studies. HCE is highly prevalent in Iran. Public education for preventive strategies and finally reducing transmission of the parasite and infection in population is needed. Reza Shafiei, Saeed Hosseini Teshnizi, Kurosh Kalantar, Maryam Gholami, Golnush Mirzaee, and Fatemeh Mirzaee Copyright © 2016 Reza Shafiei et al. All rights reserved. Intestinal Schistosomiasis among Primary Schoolchildren in Two On-Shore Communities in Rorya District, Northwestern Tanzania: Prevalence, Intensity of Infection and Associated Risk Factors Sun, 16 Oct 2016 12:58:47 +0000 In Tanzania, Schistosoma mansoni is of great public health importance. Understanding the prevalence and infection intensity is important for targeted, evidence-based control strategies. This study aimed at studying the prevalence, intensity, and risk factors of S. mansoni among schoolchildren in the study area. A cross-sectional study was conducted in Busanga and Kibuyi villages. Sampled 513 schoolchildren provided stool specimens which were examined using kato-katz method. Pretested questionnaire was used to collect sociodemographic data and associated risk factors. The prevalence of S. mansoni infection was 84.01%, with geometric mean egg intensity of 167.13 (95% CI: 147.19–189.79) eggs per gram of stool (epg). Other parasites detected were Ascaris lumbricoides (1.4%) and hookworms (1.4%). The geometric mean infection intensity in Busanga and Kibuyi were 203.70 (95% CI: 169.67–244.56) and 135.98 (95% CI: 114.33–161.73) epg, respectively. Light, moderate, and heavy infection intensities were 34.11%, 39.91%, and 25.99%, respectively. Village of residence, parent’s level of education, toilet use, and treatment history were predictors of infection. The high prevalence and infection intensity in this study were associated with village, parent’s level of education, inconsistent toilet use, and treatment history. To control the disease among at-risk groups, these factors need to be considered in designing integrated schistosomiasis control interventions. David Z. Munisi, Joram Buza, Emmanuel A. Mpolya, and Safari M. Kinung’hi Copyright © 2016 David Z. Munisi et al. All rights reserved. Molecular Evidence of High Proportion of Plasmodium vivax Malaria Infection in White Nile Area in Sudan Sun, 16 Oct 2016 12:58:43 +0000 Plasmodium falciparum is a predominant malaria species that infects humans in the African continent. A recent WHO report estimated 95% and 5% of P. falciparum and P. vivax malaria cases, respectively, in Sudan. However many laboratory reports from different areas in Sudan indicated otherwise. In order to verify, we selected four hundred suspected malaria cases from Aljabalain area located in the White Nile state, central Sudan, and diagnosed them with quality insured microscopy and species-specific nested PCR. Our results indicated that the proportion of P. vivax infections among suspected malaria cases was high. We found that on average 20% and 36.5% of malaria infections in both study areas were caused by P. vivax using both microscopy and PCR, respectively. This change in pattern is likely due to the recent demographic changes and high rate of immigration from neighbouring countries in the recent years. This is the first extensive clinical study of its kind that shows rising trend in P. vivax malaria cases in White Nile area, Sudan. Makarim M. Adam Suliman, Bushra M. Hamad, Musab M. Ali Albasheer, Maytha Elhadi, Mutaz Amin Mustafa, Maha Elobied, and Muzamil Mahdi Abdel Hamid Copyright © 2016 Makarim M. Adam Suliman et al. All rights reserved. Comparative Performance Evaluation of Routine Malaria Diagnosis at Ho Municipal Hospital Sun, 25 Sep 2016 09:25:15 +0000 Differences in quality performance score had been reported for the routinely used diagnostic methods for malaria at different settings. There is therefore a need to evaluate the test performance of the routine diagnostic methods for malaria detection in Ho, a setting with no recorded quality evaluation on malaria diagnosis. The hospital-based cross-sectional study was conducted comprising 299 outpatients. Patients were first seen and presumptively diagnosed with malaria by a clinician and were referred to the laboratory for confirmation (microscopy and Rapid Diagnostic Test). The performance analysis included sensitivity, specificity, receiver operating characteristics (ROC), weighted kappa, Youden index, and value. Out of the 299 patients, 221 patients were positive by presumptive diagnosis, 35 were positive by Rapid Diagnostic Test (RDT), and 25 were positive by microscopy. Using microscopy as the gold standard, RDT had sensitivity of 62.5% and specificity of 92.73%, whilst presumptive diagnosis had a sensitivity of 70.83% and specificity of 25.82%. The RDT recorded ROC of 0.697 with value of 0.0001. The presumptive diagnosis recorded ROC of 0.506 with value of 0.7304. Though none of the test methods evaluated over the gold standard achieved the WHO recommended diagnostic sensitivity and specificity, the RDT achieved an acceptable agreement with the gold standard. James Osei-Yeboah, Gameli Kwame Norgbe, Sylvester Yao Lokpo, Mohammed Khadijah Kinansua, Loverage Nettey, and Emmanuel Alote Allotey Copyright © 2016 James Osei-Yeboah et al. All rights reserved. Distribution of Helminth Parasites in Intestines and Their Seasonal Rate of Infestation in Three Freshwater Fishes of Kashmir Wed, 21 Sep 2016 07:42:45 +0000 The present study was undertaken to determine the incidence of helminth parasites in fishes with special reference to water quality parameters in Dal Lake and River Jhelum and correlate the observations. Water, fish, and parasite samples were collected during different seasons from various sites and processed. Three fish species, namely, Schizothorax niger Heckel 1838, Schizothorax esocinus Heckel 1838, and Schizothorax curvifrons Heckel 1838, were recovered from these water bodies. The physicochemical parameters temperature, dissolved oxygen, pH, and free carbon dioxide showed variation vis-à-vis the season and location of the stations in water bodies. Acanthocephalan parasite Pomphorhynchus kashmirensis Kaw 1941 (27.47%) and two intestinal cestodes Bothriocephalus acheilognathi Yamaguti 1934 (30.63%) and Adenoscolex oreini Fotedar 1958 (32.43%) were recovered from all the three species of Schizothorax. All the three parasites showed higher prevalence during summer and the least prevalence during winter. Parasitic infections were prevalent more in male fishes compared to females. The presence of the parasites had reduced the condition coefficient of the infected fishes in both water bodies. The study also showed that some of the physicochemical features showed a significant positive correlation with the prevalence. Asifa Wali, Masood-ul Hassan Balkhi, Rafia Maqbool, Mohammed Maqbool Darzi, Feroz Ahmad Shah, Farooz Ahmad Bhat, and Bilal Ahmad Bhat Copyright © 2016 Asifa Wali et al. All rights reserved.