Journal of Parasitology Research The latest articles from Hindawi Publishing Corporation © 2016 , Hindawi Publishing Corporation . All rights reserved. The Seroprevalence of Human Cystic Echinococcosis in Iran: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis Study Mon, 17 Oct 2016 11:12:45 +0000 Human cystic echinococcosis (HCE), a zoonotic infection of the larval stage of Echinococcus granulosus, has high effect on public health in human population all around the world. Iran is one of the most important endemic areas in the Middle East. This systematic review and meta-analysis was performed to evaluate the seroprevalence of HCE in Iranian population. An electronic search for articles from 1985 until April 2015 was performed using data bases PubMed, Scopus, Google Scholar, Magiran, IranMedex, Iran Doc, and Scientific Information Database (SID) both in English and in Persian. A random-effects meta-analysis was used to combine results from individual studies. The information was analyzed by STATA version 11.1. A total of 33 articles met our eligibility criteria and were included in a meta-analysis. The pooled estimate of the prevalence of HCE based on random-effects model was estimated 6.0% (95% CI: 4.0%, 7.0%). The prevalence of the disease significantly increased with age and prevalence rate in males was significantly lower than females (). The using of CIE or CCIEP method was also significantly greater than the other methods (). There was a publication bias in prevalence of studies. HCE is highly prevalent in Iran. Public education for preventive strategies and finally reducing transmission of the parasite and infection in population is needed. Reza Shafiei, Saeed Hosseini Teshnizi, Kurosh Kalantar, Maryam Gholami, Golnush Mirzaee, and Fatemeh Mirzaee Copyright © 2016 Reza Shafiei et al. All rights reserved. Intestinal Schistosomiasis among Primary Schoolchildren in Two On-Shore Communities in Rorya District, Northwestern Tanzania: Prevalence, Intensity of Infection and Associated Risk Factors Sun, 16 Oct 2016 12:58:47 +0000 In Tanzania, Schistosoma mansoni is of great public health importance. Understanding the prevalence and infection intensity is important for targeted, evidence-based control strategies. This study aimed at studying the prevalence, intensity, and risk factors of S. mansoni among schoolchildren in the study area. A cross-sectional study was conducted in Busanga and Kibuyi villages. Sampled 513 schoolchildren provided stool specimens which were examined using kato-katz method. Pretested questionnaire was used to collect sociodemographic data and associated risk factors. The prevalence of S. mansoni infection was 84.01%, with geometric mean egg intensity of 167.13 (95% CI: 147.19–189.79) eggs per gram of stool (epg). Other parasites detected were Ascaris lumbricoides (1.4%) and hookworms (1.4%). The geometric mean infection intensity in Busanga and Kibuyi were 203.70 (95% CI: 169.67–244.56) and 135.98 (95% CI: 114.33–161.73) epg, respectively. Light, moderate, and heavy infection intensities were 34.11%, 39.91%, and 25.99%, respectively. Village of residence, parent’s level of education, toilet use, and treatment history were predictors of infection. The high prevalence and infection intensity in this study were associated with village, parent’s level of education, inconsistent toilet use, and treatment history. To control the disease among at-risk groups, these factors need to be considered in designing integrated schistosomiasis control interventions. David Z. Munisi, Joram Buza, Emmanuel A. Mpolya, and Safari M. Kinung’hi Copyright © 2016 David Z. Munisi et al. All rights reserved. Molecular Evidence of High Proportion of Plasmodium vivax Malaria Infection in White Nile Area in Sudan Sun, 16 Oct 2016 12:58:43 +0000 Plasmodium falciparum is a predominant malaria species that infects humans in the African continent. A recent WHO report estimated 95% and 5% of P. falciparum and P. vivax malaria cases, respectively, in Sudan. However many laboratory reports from different areas in Sudan indicated otherwise. In order to verify, we selected four hundred suspected malaria cases from Aljabalain area located in the White Nile state, central Sudan, and diagnosed them with quality insured microscopy and species-specific nested PCR. Our results indicated that the proportion of P. vivax infections among suspected malaria cases was high. We found that on average 20% and 36.5% of malaria infections in both study areas were caused by P. vivax using both microscopy and PCR, respectively. This change in pattern is likely due to the recent demographic changes and high rate of immigration from neighbouring countries in the recent years. This is the first extensive clinical study of its kind that shows rising trend in P. vivax malaria cases in White Nile area, Sudan. Makarim M. Adam Suliman, Bushra M. Hamad, Musab M. Ali Albasheer, Maytha Elhadi, Mutaz Amin Mustafa, Maha Elobied, and Muzamil Mahdi Abdel Hamid Copyright © 2016 Makarim M. Adam Suliman et al. All rights reserved. Comparative Performance Evaluation of Routine Malaria Diagnosis at Ho Municipal Hospital Sun, 25 Sep 2016 09:25:15 +0000 Differences in quality performance score had been reported for the routinely used diagnostic methods for malaria at different settings. There is therefore a need to evaluate the test performance of the routine diagnostic methods for malaria detection in Ho, a setting with no recorded quality evaluation on malaria diagnosis. The hospital-based cross-sectional study was conducted comprising 299 outpatients. Patients were first seen and presumptively diagnosed with malaria by a clinician and were referred to the laboratory for confirmation (microscopy and Rapid Diagnostic Test). The performance analysis included sensitivity, specificity, receiver operating characteristics (ROC), weighted kappa, Youden index, and value. Out of the 299 patients, 221 patients were positive by presumptive diagnosis, 35 were positive by Rapid Diagnostic Test (RDT), and 25 were positive by microscopy. Using microscopy as the gold standard, RDT had sensitivity of 62.5% and specificity of 92.73%, whilst presumptive diagnosis had a sensitivity of 70.83% and specificity of 25.82%. The RDT recorded ROC of 0.697 with value of 0.0001. The presumptive diagnosis recorded ROC of 0.506 with value of 0.7304. Though none of the test methods evaluated over the gold standard achieved the WHO recommended diagnostic sensitivity and specificity, the RDT achieved an acceptable agreement with the gold standard. James Osei-Yeboah, Gameli Kwame Norgbe, Sylvester Yao Lokpo, Mohammed Khadijah Kinansua, Loverage Nettey, and Emmanuel Alote Allotey Copyright © 2016 James Osei-Yeboah et al. All rights reserved. Distribution of Helminth Parasites in Intestines and Their Seasonal Rate of Infestation in Three Freshwater Fishes of Kashmir Wed, 21 Sep 2016 07:42:45 +0000 The present study was undertaken to determine the incidence of helminth parasites in fishes with special reference to water quality parameters in Dal Lake and River Jhelum and correlate the observations. Water, fish, and parasite samples were collected during different seasons from various sites and processed. Three fish species, namely, Schizothorax niger Heckel 1838, Schizothorax esocinus Heckel 1838, and Schizothorax curvifrons Heckel 1838, were recovered from these water bodies. The physicochemical parameters temperature, dissolved oxygen, pH, and free carbon dioxide showed variation vis-à-vis the season and location of the stations in water bodies. Acanthocephalan parasite Pomphorhynchus kashmirensis Kaw 1941 (27.47%) and two intestinal cestodes Bothriocephalus acheilognathi Yamaguti 1934 (30.63%) and Adenoscolex oreini Fotedar 1958 (32.43%) were recovered from all the three species of Schizothorax. All the three parasites showed higher prevalence during summer and the least prevalence during winter. Parasitic infections were prevalent more in male fishes compared to females. The presence of the parasites had reduced the condition coefficient of the infected fishes in both water bodies. The study also showed that some of the physicochemical features showed a significant positive correlation with the prevalence. Asifa Wali, Masood-ul Hassan Balkhi, Rafia Maqbool, Mohammed Maqbool Darzi, Feroz Ahmad Shah, Farooz Ahmad Bhat, and Bilal Ahmad Bhat Copyright © 2016 Asifa Wali et al. All rights reserved. Could kDNA-PCR in Peripheral Blood Replace the Examination of Bone Marrow for the Diagnosis of Visceral Leishmaniasis? Sun, 14 Aug 2016 09:42:37 +0000 The aim of this study was to evaluate whether the molecular (kDNA-PCR) and parasitological diagnosis in peripheral blood (PB) could replace the invasive and painful bone marrow collection (BM) in the diagnosis of visceral leishmaniasis (VL). PB from suspected VL patients was evaluated by parasitological and molecular techniques using as the gold standard (GS) a combination of clinical, epidemiological, and immunochromatographic test (PB-rK39) results and parasitological examination of BM. Based on the GS, 38 samples from 32 patients were grouped: Group 1, 20 samples of VL cases, and Group 2, 18 samples of non-VL cases. In order to evaluate the parasitological and molecular techniques in PB, the samples were examined. From Group 1, PB kDNA-PCR was positive in 20 samples and in 19 of 20 in BM kDNA-PCR examination. However, the parasitological examination of buffy coat was insensitive, being able to detect only 4 cases from Group 1. All samples from Group 2 were negative. We concluded that, for the diagnosis of visceral leishmaniasis, the parasitological examination of peripheral blood was not useful; however, molecular diagnosis by kDNA-PCR, performed in peripheral blood, could be useful to replace the parasitological examination of bone marrow. Natalia Souza de Godoy, Marcos Luiz Alves Andrino, Regina Maia de Souza, Erika Gakiya, Valdir Sabbaga Amato, José Ângelo Lauletta Lindoso, and Lucia Maria Almeida Braz Copyright © 2016 Natalia Souza de Godoy et al. All rights reserved. Prevalence and Scanning Electron Microscopic Identification of Anoplocephalid Cestodes among Small Ruminants in Senegal Thu, 11 Aug 2016 06:41:37 +0000 This study was undertaken to determine the prevalence of anoplocephalid cestodes in sheep and goats in Senegal. Intestines of 462 sheep and 48 goats were examined; 47.4% of sheep and 6.2% of goats were infected. The species identified and their prevalence were, among sheep, Avitellina centripunctata 38.7%, Moniezia expansa 15.4%, Stilesia globipunctata 16.7%, and Thysaniezia ovilla 0.4%. Among goats, they were M. expansa 6.2% and T. ovilla 2.1%. The prevalence of all species was not statistically different between dry and rainy seasons. The infections were single or multiple. Indeed, 56.2% of sheep were infected by a single species, 37.4% by two species, and 6.4% by three species. For goats, 66.7% were infected by M. expansa and 33.3% by both M. expansa and T. ovilla. Scanning electron microscopic (SEM) observations of tapeworms show the general diagnosis characters of these species. Mallé Ndom, Gora Diop, Yann Quilichini, Tetsuya Yanagida, Cheikh Tidiane Ba, and Bernard Marchand Copyright © 2016 Mallé Ndom et al. All rights reserved. Checklists of Parasites of Farm Fishes of Babylon Province, Iraq Sun, 31 Jul 2016 09:23:19 +0000 Literature reviews of all references concerning the parasitic fauna of fishes in fish farms of Babylon province, middle of Iraq, showed that a total of 92 valid parasite species are so far known from the common carp (Cyprinus carpio), the grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella), and the silver carp (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix) as well as from three freshwater fish species (Carassius auratus, Liza abu, and Heteropneustes fossilis) which were found in some fish farms of the same province. The parasitic fauna included one mastigophoran, three apicomplexans, 13 ciliophorans, five myxozoans, five trematodes, 45 monogeneans, five cestodes, three nematodes, two acanthocephalans, nine arthropods, and one mollusc. The common carp was found to harbour 81 species of parasites, the grass carp 30 species, the silver carp 28 species, L. abu 13 species, C. auratus one species, and H. fossilis one species. A host-parasite list for each fish species was also provided. Furhan T. Mhaisen and Abdul-Razzak L. Al-Rubaie Copyright © 2016 Furhan T. Mhaisen and Abdul-Razzak L. Al-Rubaie. All rights reserved. Current Status of Soil-Transmitted Helminths among School Children in Kakamega County, Western Kenya Wed, 20 Jul 2016 14:13:15 +0000 Background. School age children are at high risk of soil-transmitted helminth (STH) worldwide. In Kenya, STH infections in children remain high despite the periodic administration of anthelmintic drugs. Our study assessed the prevalence and intensity of STH in primary school-aged children in Kakamega County, western Kenya. Methodology. We carried out a cross-sectional study on a population of 731 children attending 7 primary schools in March 2014. Children aged 4–16 years were examined for STH by the quantitative Kato-Katz technique. Infection intensities were expressed as eggs per gram (epg) of faeces. Findings. Among 731 school children examined for STH, 44.05% were infected. Highest prevalence of STH was in Shitaho primary school where 107 participants were examined and 62.6% were infected with mean intensity of 11667 epg. Iyenga had the least prevalence where 101 participants were examined and 26.7% were infected with mean intensity of 11772 epg. A. lumbricoides was the most prevalent STH species with 43.5% infected, while hookworm infections were low with 1.8% infected. Conclusion. Prevalence of STHs infections in Kakamega County remains high. We recommend guidelines and other control strategies to be scaled up to break transmission cycles. Teresia Ngonjo, Collins Okoyo, Julius Andove, Elses Simiyu, Agola Eric Lelo, Ephantus Kabiru, Jimmy Kihara, and Charles Mwandawiro Copyright © 2016 Teresia Ngonjo et al. All rights reserved. Vectors and Spatial Patterns of Angiostrongylus cantonensis in Selected Rice-Farming Villages of Muñoz, Nueva Ecija, Philippines Tue, 24 May 2016 13:18:24 +0000 In the Philippines, rats and snails abound in agricultural areas as pests and source of food for some of the local people which poses risks of parasite transmission to humans such as Angiostrongylus cantonensis. This study was conducted to determine the extent of A. cantonensis infection among rats and snails collected from rice-farming villages of Muñoz, Nueva Ecija. A total of 209 rats, 781 freshwater snails, and 120 terrestrial snails were collected for the study. Heart and lungs of rats and snail tissues were examined and subjected to artificial digestion for parasite collection. Adult worms from rats were identified using SSU rDNA gene. Seven nematode sequences obtained matched A. cantonensis. Results revealed that 31% of the rats examined were positive with A. cantonensis. Rattus norvegicus and R. tanezumi showed prevalence of 46% and 29%, respectively. Furthermore, only Pomacea canaliculata (2%) and Melanoides maculata (1%) were found to be positive for A. cantonensis among the snails collected. Analysis of host distribution showed overlapping habitats of rats and snails as well as residential and agricultural areas indicating risks to public health. This study presents a possible route of human infection for A. cantonensis through handling and consumption of P. canaliculata and M. maculata or crops contaminated by these snails. Ma. Angelica A. Tujan, Ian Kendrich C. Fontanilla, and Vachel Gay V. Paller Copyright © 2016 Ma. Angelica A. Tujan et al. All rights reserved. Horizontal Gene Transfers from Bacteria to Entamoeba Complex: A Strategy for Dating Events along Species Divergence Wed, 27 Apr 2016 09:49:39 +0000 Horizontal gene transfer has proved to be relevant in eukaryotic evolution, as it has been found more often than expected and related to adaptation to certain niches. A relatively large list of laterally transferred genes has been proposed and evaluated for the parasite Entamoeba histolytica. The goals of this work were to elucidate the importance of lateral gene transfer along the evolutionary history of some members of the genus Entamoeba, through identifying donor groups and estimating the divergence time of some of these events. In order to estimate the divergence time of some of the horizontal gene transfer events, the dating of some Entamoeba species was necessary, following an indirect dating strategy based on the fossil record of plausible hosts. The divergence between E. histolytica and E. nuttallii probably occurred 5.93 million years ago (Mya); this lineage diverged from E. dispar 9.97 Mya, while the ancestor of the latter separated from E. invadens 68.18 Mya. We estimated times for 22 transferences; the most recent occurred 31.45 Mya and the oldest 253.59 Mya. Indeed, the acquisition of genes through lateral transfer may have triggered a period of adaptive radiation, thus playing a major role in the evolution of the Entamoeba genus. Miguel Romero, R. Cerritos, and Cecilia Ximenez Copyright © 2016 Miguel Romero et al. All rights reserved. Neobenedenia melleni Parasite of Red Snapper, Lutjanus erythropterus, with Regression Statistical Analysis between Fish Length, Temperature, and Parasitic Intensity in Infected Fish, Cultured at Jerejak Island, Penang, Malaysia Wed, 06 Apr 2016 06:38:58 +0000 The fish parasites collected from Lutjanus erythropterus fish species showed a correlation with parasitic intensity, fish size, and temperature, and statistical model summary was produced using SPSS version 20, statistical software. Statistical model summary concluded that among the variables which significantly predict the prevalence of Neobenedenia melleni parasites are fish length and water temperature, both significant at 1% and 5%. Furthermore, the increase in one unit of fish length, holding other variables constant, increases the prevalence of parasite by approximately 1 (0.7≈1) unit. Also, increasing the temperature from 32°C to 33°C will positively increase the number of parasites by approximately 0.32 units, holding other variables constant. The model can be summarized as estimated number of Neobenedenia melleni parasites = 8.2 + 0.7 (fish length) + 0.32 (water temperature). Next, this study has also shown the DNA sequence and parasitic morphology of Neobenedenia melleni. Nucleotide sequence for 18s ribosomal gene RNA in this study showed 99% similarity with N. melleni EU707804.1 from GenBank. Finally, all the sequence of Neobenedenia melleni in this study was deposited in GenBank with accession numbers of KU843501, KU843502, KU843503, and KU843504. Rajiv Ravi and Zary Shariman Yahaya Copyright © 2016 Rajiv Ravi and Zary Shariman Yahaya. All rights reserved. Prevalence of Intestinal Parasitic Infection among Food Handlers in Northwest Iran Sun, 03 Apr 2016 13:50:13 +0000 Parasitic diseases are among the most important infectious diseases and pose health problems in many countries, most especially in developing countries. Workers at food centers could transmit parasitic infections in the absence of sanitation. This is a descriptive study conducted to determine the prevalence of intestinal parasitic infections in food clerks in the city of Tabriz in 2014. Data was recorded in the offices of the health center for all food handlers who were referred to the laboratory for demographic and stool tests to receive the health card. Parasitic infection was observed in 172 cases (3.73%) of 4612 samples. A total of 156 positive samples (90.69%) were related to protozoa and 16 (9.3%) were related to helminthes. Most of the parasitic infections were related to Giardia and Entamoeba coli and the lowest infection was related to H. nana. Also, there was a significant relationship between level of education and parasitic infection rate (). But there was no significant difference between the type of infection and amount of intestinal parasites. The results show that the prevalence of intestinal parasites, especially pathogenic protozoa, is common in some food handlers. Therefore, more sanitary controls are required and increasing of education will play a crucial role in improving the health of these people. Davoud Balarak, Mohammad Jafari Modrek, Edris Bazrafshan, Hossein Ansari, and Ferdos Kord Mostafapour Copyright © 2016 Davoud Balarak et al. All rights reserved. Genetic Polymorphism of msp1 and msp2 in Plasmodium falciparum Isolates from Côte d’Ivoire versus Gabon Thu, 24 Mar 2016 14:14:41 +0000 Introduction. The characterization of genetic profile of Plasmodium isolates from different areas could help in better strategies for malaria elimination. This study aimed to compare P. falciparum diversity in two African countries. Methods. Isolates collected from 100 and 73 falciparum malaria infections in sites of Côte d’Ivoire (West Africa) and Gabon (Central Africa), respectively, were analyzed by a nested PCR amplification of msp1 and msp2 genes. Results. The K1 allelic family was widespread in Côte d’Ivoire (64.6%) and in Gabon (56.6%). For msp2, the 3D7 alleles were more prevalent (>70% in both countries) compared to FC27 alleles. In Côte d’Ivoire, the frequencies of multiple infections with msp1 (45.1%) and msp2 (40.3%) were higher than those found for isolates from Gabon, that is, 30.2% with msp1 and 31.4% with msp2. The overall complexity of infection was 1.66 (SD = 0.79) in Côte d’Ivoire and 1.58 (SD = 0.83) in Gabon. It decreased with age in Côte d’Ivoire in contrast to Gabon. Conclusion. Differences observed in some allelic families and in complexity profile may suggest an impact of epidemiological facies as well as immunological response on genetic variability of P. falciparum. William Yavo, Abibatou Konaté, Denise Patricia Mawili-Mboumba, Fulgence Kondo Kassi, Marie L. Tshibola Mbuyi, Etienne Kpongbo Angora, Eby I. Hervé Menan, and Marielle K. Bouyou-Akotet Copyright © 2016 William Yavo et al. All rights reserved. Quality of Sulfadoxine-Pyrimethamine Given as Antimalarial Prophylaxis in Pregnant Women in Selected Health Facilities in Central Region of Ghana Sun, 06 Mar 2016 14:32:17 +0000 The use of sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine (SP) as an intermittent preventive treatment (IPT) against malaria during pregnancy has become a policy in most sub-Sahara African countries and crucially depends on the efficacy of SP. This study sets out to evaluate the effectiveness of the SP given to the pregnant women in some selected health facilities in the Central Region of Ghana to prevent maternal malaria in pregnant women. A total of 543 pregnant women recruited from 7 selected health centres in Central Region of Ghana participated in the study. Parasite density of Plasmodium falciparum was determined from peripheral blood of the pregnant women using microscopy. High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and dissolution tester were used to determine the quality of the SP. Malaria infection was recorded in 11.2% of pregnant women who had a history of SP consumption. SP failed the dissolution test. Pregnant women who did not receive IPT-SP were 44%. Low haemoglobin level was recorded in 73.5% of the pregnant women. The results indicated that SP was substandard. IPT-SP is ineffective in preventing malaria infection. Danny F. Yeboah, Richmond Afoakwah, Ekene K. Nwaefuna, Orish Verner, and Johnson N. Boampong Copyright © 2016 Danny F. Yeboah et al. All rights reserved. Therapeutic and Safety Evaluation of Combined Aqueous Extracts of Azadirachta indica and Khaya senegalensis in Chickens Experimentally Infected with Eimeria Oocysts Tue, 16 Feb 2016 08:58:00 +0000 Coccidiosis is a disease of economic importance in poultry causing morbidity and mortality. Reports show that Azadirachta indica and Khaya senegalensis have been used individually in the treatment of avian coccidiosis. We thus investigated the efficacy and safety of the combined aqueous extracts of these plants for the treatment of experimentally induced coccidiosis in broiler chickens using oocyst count, oxidative stress biomarkers, serum biochemistry, histology, and haematological parameters. The phytochemical screening revealed the presence of tannins, saponins, cardiac glycosides, and steroids in both extracts. In addition, alkaloids and flavonoids were present in Azadirachta indica. There was significant () dose dependent decrease in oocyst count across the treatment groups with 400 mg/kg of the combined extract being the most efficacious dose. Immunomodulatory and erythropoietic activity was observed. There were decreased intestinal lesions and enhanced antioxidant activity across the treatment groups compared to the negative control. Administration of the combined extract did not cause damage to the liver as ALT, AST, and ALP levels were significantly reduced in the uninfected chickens treated with the extracts compared to control suggesting safety at the doses used. The combined aqueous extracts of K. senegalensis stem bark and Azadirachta indica leaves were ameliorative in chickens infected with coccidiosis. J. G. Gotep, J. T. Tanko, G. E. Forcados, I. A. Muraina, N. Ozele, B. B. Dogonyaro, O. O. Oladipo, M. S. Makoshi, O. B. Akanbi, H. Kinjir, A. L. Samuel, T. E. Onyiche, G. O. Ochigbo, O. B. Aladelokun, H. A. Ozoani, V. Z. Viyoff, C. C. Dapuliga, A. A. Atiku, P. A. Okewole, D. Shamaki, M. S. Ahmed, and C. I. Nduaka Copyright © 2016 J. G. Gotep et al. All rights reserved. Feeding Patterns and Xenomonitoring of Trypanosomes among Tsetse Flies around the Gashaka-Gumti National Park in Nigeria Mon, 15 Feb 2016 08:21:52 +0000 In order to understand the epidemiology of trypanosomoses in Gashaka-Gumti National Park, Nigeria, we determined the density, infection rates, and feeding patterns of tsetse flies using biconical traps, ITS, and mitochondrial cytochrome b PCRs. A total of 631 tsetse flies were captured, of which 531 (84.2%) and 100 (15.8%) were analyzed for trypanosomes and blood meals, respectively. Tsetse distribution varied significantly () across study sites with average trap and daily catches of 4.39 and 26.34, respectively. Overall tsetse infection rate was 5.08% and ranged between 3.03% and 6.84% across study sites. We identified 10 T. brucei, 3 T. congolense savannah, 2 T. congolense forest, and 2 mixed infections among the 13 pools made from the 27 flies positive for trypanosomes with light microscopy. The distribution of vertebrate blood meals in tsetse flies varied significantly () and ranged between 6.0% and 45% across hosts. We also observed dual feeding patterns involving at least 2 hosts in 24% and multiple feeding involving at least 3 hosts in 17% of the flies. We observed predominance of G. palpalis which also recorded higher infection rate. T. brucei was more prevalent among tsetse flies. Tsetse flies fed predominantly on cattle and less frequently on humans and also showed mixed feeding habits. Solomon Ngutor Karshima, Idris A. Lawal, and Oluseyi Oluyinka Okubanjo Copyright © 2016 Solomon Ngutor Karshima et al. All rights reserved. Silent Human Trypanosoma brucei gambiense Infections around the Old Gboko Sleeping Sickness Focus in Nigeria Sun, 31 Jan 2016 13:35:57 +0000 Trypanosoma brucei gambiense causes Gambian trypanosomosis, a disease ravaging affected rural parts of Sub-Saharan Africa. We screened 1200 human blood samples for T. b. gambiense using the card agglutination test for trypanosomosis, characterized trypanosome isolates with Trypanosoma gambiense serum glycoprotein-PCR (TgsGP-PCR), and analyzed our data using Chi square and odds ratio at 95% confidence interval for statistical association. Of the 1200 samples, the CATT revealed an overall infection rate of 1.8% which ranged between 0.0% and 3.5% across study sites. Age and sex based infection rates ranged between 1.2% and 2.3%. We isolated 7 (33.3%) trypanosomes from the 21 seropositive samples using immunosuppressed mice which were identified as T. b. gambiense group 1 by TgsGP-PCR. Based on study sites, PCR revealed an overall infection rate of 0.6% which ranged between 0.0% and 1.5%. Females and males revealed PCR based infection rates of 0.3% and 0.8%, respectively. Infection rates in adults (1.3%) and children (0.1%) varied significantly (). We observed silent T. b. gambiense infections among residents of this focus. Risks of disease development into the second fatal stage in these patients who may also serve as reservoirs of infection in the focus exist. Karshima Solomon Ngutor, Lawal A. Idris, and Okubanjo Oluseyi Oluyinka Copyright © 2016 Karshima Solomon Ngutor et al. All rights reserved. Prevalence of Helminths in Dogs and Owners’ Awareness of Zoonotic Diseases in Mampong, Ashanti, Ghana Sun, 31 Jan 2016 11:06:33 +0000 Dogs are popular pets that live closely with humans. However, this cohabitation allows for the transmission of zoonotic parasites to humans. In Ghana, very little is known about zoonotic parasites in dogs. We examined excrements of 154 dogs for intestinal helminthes using saturated sodium chloride as a floatation medium and further interviewed 100 dog owners regarding knowledge on zoonosis and pet management practices. Thirteen parasite species were identified, with an overall prevalence of 52.6%. Nematodes were more common than cestodes, with Toxocara canis being the most prevalent helminth (18.8%). Age (; ) and location (; ) of dogs were significant risk factors of helminthic infections, while mode of housing, function, and gender of dogs were not. Knowledge on zoonosis and pet management practices were poor, including irregular deworming and feeding of animals off the bare ground. Dogs may play an active role in the transmission of zoonotic diseases in the area, given the cohabitation of infected dogs with humans; irregular deworming pattern of dogs; and rampant excretion of helminth-infested dog excreta into the environment. Papa Kofi Amissah-Reynolds, Isaac Monney, Lucy Mawusi Adowah, and Samuel Opoku Agyemang Copyright © 2016 Papa Kofi Amissah-Reynolds et al. All rights reserved. Evaluation of the Larvicidal Efficacy of Five Indigenous Weeds against an Indian Strain of Dengue Vector, Aedes aegypti L. (Diptera: Culicidae) Sun, 31 Jan 2016 10:13:36 +0000 Background and Objectives. Aedes aegypti, dengue fever mosquito, is primarily associated with the transmission of dengue and chikungunya in tropical and subtropical regions of the world. The present investigations were carried out to assess the larvicidal efficiency of five indigenous weeds against Ae. aegypti. Methods. The 1,000 ppm hexane and ethanol extracts prepared from the leaves and stem of five plants (Achyranthes aspera, Cassia occidentalis, Catharanthus roseus, Lantana camara, and Xanthium strumarium) were screened for their larvicidal activity against early fourth instars of dengue vector. The extracts which could cause 80–100% mortality were further investigated for their efficacy. Results. The preliminary screening established the efficacy of hexane extracts as compared to the ethanol extracts. Further investigations revealed the highest larvicidal potential of A. aspera extracts exhibiting LC50 value of 82.555 ppm and 68.133 ppm, respectively. Further, their leaf extracts showed 5–85.9% higher larvicidal activity and stem extracts exhibited 0.23- to 0.85-fold more efficiency than the other four extracts. Conclusion. The present investigations suggest the possible use of A. aspera as an ideal ecofriendly, larvicidal agent for the control of dengue vector, Ae. aegypti. Future studies are, however, required to explore and identify the bioactive component involved and its mode of action. Aarti Sharma, Sarita Kumar, and Pushplata Tripathi Copyright © 2016 Aarti Sharma et al. All rights reserved. Soil-Transmitted Helminth Reinfection and Associated Risk Factors among School-Age Children in Chencha District, Southern Ethiopia: A Cross-Sectional Study Thu, 28 Jan 2016 11:42:31 +0000 Mass drug administration (MDA) to the most risky population including school-age children (SAC) is the central strategy to control soil-transmitted helminth (STH) infection. The present study was aimed at estimating the prevalence of STHs reinfection three months posttreatment and associated risk factors among SAC in Chencha district. A cross-sectional study design was employed from April 20 to May 5, 2015, to enroll 408 SAC. Structured questionnaire and Kato-Katz thick smear technique were used to interview parents or guardians and quantify the number of eggs per gram of stool. Pearson chi-square and logistic regression were used to assess the association between predictor variable and STH reinfection. The prevalence of STHs within three months of mass chemotherapy among SAC was 36.8% which is 93.4% of the prevalence (39.4%) before treatment. The estimated prevalence of reinfection (95%CI) for Ascaris lumbricoides, Trichuris trichiura, and hookworms was 23.8% (21.1–28.2), 16.2% (12.7–20.1), and 1.0% (0.3–2.5), respectively. Children of merchant fathers were more likely to be reinfected by STHs in Chencha district. In conclusion, there is rapid reinfection after mass chemotherapy among SAC in Chencha district. Further studies should be carried out to generate cost efficient methods that can supplement mass drug administration to accelerate the control of STHs. Zerihun Zerdo, Tsegaye Yohanes, and Befikadu Tariku Copyright © 2016 Zerihun Zerdo et al. All rights reserved. First Record of Anisakis simplex Third-Stage Larvae (Nematoda, Anisakidae) in European Hake Merluccius merluccius lessepsianus in Egyptian Water Tue, 26 Jan 2016 09:34:31 +0000 The prevalence of infection and the identification of anisakid larvae in European hake Merluccius merluccius lessepsianus from Hurghada City, Red Sea Governorate, Egypt, were investigated. Fish samples were collected during the period of February and November 2014. Twenty-two (36.66%) out of sixty examined fish specimens were found to be naturally infected with Anisakis type I larvae mostly found as encapsulated larvae in visceral organs. There was a positive relationship between host length/weight and prevalence of infection. Based on morphological, morphometric, and molecular analyses, these nematodes were identified as third-stage larvae of Anisakis simplex. The present study was considered as the first report of anisakid larvae from European hake in the Egyptian water. Yasmin Abou-Rahma, Rewaida Abdel-Gaber, and Amira Kamal Ahmed Copyright © 2016 Yasmin Abou-Rahma et al. All rights reserved. Comparison of Partec Rapid Malaria Test with Conventional Light Microscopy for Diagnosis of Malaria in Northwest Ethiopia Mon, 11 Jan 2016 12:00:36 +0000 Background. Laboratory diagnosis of malaria is the key for effective disease management. Diagnosis of malaria infection requires rapid, sensitive, and specific test methods with an affordable cost. This study was aimed to assess the diagnostic performance of Partec rapid malaria test with reference to light microscopy for the diagnosis of malaria in Northwest Ethiopia. Methods. A total of 180 febrile patients were tested for malaria using Giemsa stain microscopy and Partec rapid malaria test from June to July 2013 at Gendewuha health centers, Metema district. Data were analyzed using SPSS version 20 statistical software. Odds ratio with 95% CI was calculated. Result. The sensitivity and specificity of Partec rapid malaria test were 93.8% (95% CI = 87.1%–100%) and 87.9% (95% CI = 79.7%–96.1%), respectively, while the positive predictive value and negative predictive value were 6.4% (95% CI = 77.2%–95.5%) and 94.6% (95% CI = 88.7%–100%), respectively. There was also an excellent agreement between two tests with Kappa value of 0.811 (95% CI = 0.625–0.996). Conclusion. Partec rapid malaria test showed good sensitivity and specificity with an excellent agreement to the reference light microscopy. Therefore PT can be considered as alternative diagnostic tools in malaria endemic areas. Meseret Birhanie Copyright © 2016 Meseret Birhanie. All rights reserved. Developments in Diagnosis of Visceral Leishmaniasis in the Elimination Era Wed, 30 Dec 2015 09:29:08 +0000 Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is the most devastating parasitic infection worldwide causing high morbidity and mortality. Clinical presentation of VL ranges from asymptomatic or subclinical infection to severe and complicated symptomatic disease. A major challenge in the clinical management of VL is the weakness of health systems in disease endemic regions. People affected by VL mostly present to primary health care centers (PHCs), often late in their therapeutic itinerary. PHC physicians face a major challenge: they do not deal with a single disease issue but with patients presenting with complaints pointing to several diagnostic possibilities. Risk exists when some patients having less clinical manifestations are misdiagnosed. Therefore, field based accurate, sensitive, and cost effective rapid diagnostic tools that can detect disease in its mildest form are essential for effective control and reaching the goal of VL elimination. In this review, we discuss the current status and challenges of various diagnostic tools for the diagnosis of VL and assess their application in resource poor settings. Om Prakash Singh and Shyam Sundar Copyright © 2015 Om Prakash Singh and Shyam Sundar. All rights reserved. Malaria Prevention, Mefloquine Neurotoxicity, Neuropsychiatric Illness, and Risk-Benefit Analysis in the Australian Defence Force Thu, 17 Dec 2015 12:20:53 +0000 The Australian Defence Force (ADF) has used mefloquine for malaria chemoprophylaxis since 1990. Mefloquine has been found to be a plausible cause of a chronic central nervous system toxicity syndrome and a confounding factor in the diagnosis of existing neuropsychiatric illnesses prevalent in the ADF such as posttraumatic stress disorder and traumatic brain injury. Overall health risks appear to have been mitigated by restricting the drug’s use; however serious risks were realised when significant numbers of ADF personnel were subjected to clinical trials involving the drug. The full extent of the exposure, health impacts for affected individuals, and consequences for ADF health management including mental health are not yet known, but mefloquine may have caused or aggravated neuropsychiatric illness in large numbers of patients who were subsequently misdiagnosed and mistreated or otherwise failed to receive proper care. Findings in relation to chronic mefloquine neurotoxicity were foreseeable, but this eventuality appears not to have been considered during risk-benefit analyses. Thorough analysis by the ADF would have identified this long-term risk as well as other qualitative risk factors. Historical exposure of ADF personnel to mefloquine neurotoxicity now also necessitates ongoing risk monitoring and management in the overall context of broader health policies. Stuart McCarthy Copyright © 2015 Stuart McCarthy. All rights reserved. In Vitro Detection of Acaricidal Resistance Status of Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus against Commercial Preparation of Deltamethrin, Flumethrin, and Fipronil from North Gujarat, India Mon, 14 Dec 2015 13:49:49 +0000 Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus is the most common tick species in India infesting cattle and buffaloes and causing significant economic losses to dairy and leather industries by adversely affecting the milk production and quality of hides. A study to evaluate the acaricide resistance status of Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus to deltamethrin, flumethrin, and fipronil was conducted on the samples collected from organized and unorganized farms of North Gujarat state, where treatment failures were reported frequently. Adult Immersion Test (AIT) and Larval Packet Test (LPT) were conducted using field strain for determination of 50 and 95% lethal concentration of deltamethrin, flumethrin, and fipronil. Results obtained by the Adult Immersion Test showed low grade resistance (level I, RF > 5) has been developed against both deltamethrin and fipronil. However, deltamethrin by performing Larval Packet Test showed moderate grade resistance (level II, RF > 25). Larval packet performed by flumethrin also revealed low grade resistance, level I. The data on field status of acaricide resistance from the area with diversified animal genetic resources will be helpful to adopt suitable strategy to overcome the process of development of resistance in ticks. K. P. Shyma, Jay Prakash Gupta, Veer Singh, and K. K. Patel Copyright © 2015 K. P. Shyma et al. All rights reserved. Expression of Genes Encoding the Enzymes for Glycogen and Trehalose Metabolism in L3 and L4 Larvae of Anisakis simplex Wed, 09 Dec 2015 08:27:14 +0000 Trehalose and glycogen metabolism plays an important role in supporting life processes in many nematodes, including Anisakis simplex. Nematodes, cosmopolitan helminths parasitizing sea mammals and humans, cause a disease known as anisakiasis. The aim of this study was to investigate the expression of genes encoding the enzymes involved in the metabolism of trehalose and glycogen—trehalose-6-phosphate synthase (TPS), trehalose-6-phosphate phosphatase (TPP), glycogen synthase (GS), and glycogen phosphorylase (GP)—in stage L3 and stage L4 larvae of A. simplex. The expression of mRNA all four genes, tps, tpp, gs, and gp, was examined by real-time polymerase chain reaction. The A. simplex ribosomal gene (18S) was used as a reference gene. Enzymatic activity was determined. The expression of trehalose enzyme genes was higher in L3 than in L4 larvae, but an inverse relationship was noted for the expression of gs and gp genes. E. Łopieńska-Biernat, E. A. Zaobidna, and M. Dmitryjuk Copyright © 2015 E. Łopieńska-Biernat et al. All rights reserved. Plasmodium falciparum msp2 Genotypes and Multiplicity of Infections among Children under Five Years with Uncomplicated Malaria in Kibaha, Tanzania Sun, 06 Dec 2015 12:33:03 +0000 Genetic diversity of Plasmodium falciparum may pose challenges in malaria treatment and prevention through chemotherapy and vaccination. We assessed Plasmodium falciparum genetic diversity and multiplicity of infection (MOI) of P. falciparum infections and sort relationship of parasitaemia with P. falciparum msp2 genotypes as well as with the number of infecting clones. The study was carried out in Kibaha, Tanzania. Ninety-nine children under five years with uncomplicated malaria were recruited. Genetic diversity was analyzed by genotyping the msp2 gene using PCR-Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism. Thirty-two different msp2 alleles were obtained. The msp2 3D7 allelic frequency was higher (48.1%) and more prevalent than FC27 (27.3%) (). Twenty-four percent of the infections were mixed alleles. The individuals with FC27 had high parasitemia compared to those with 3D7 alleles (). The mean MOI was low (1.4 clones, 95% CI 1.2–1.5). The P. falciparum population among children at Kibaha is composed of distinct P. falciparum clones, and parasites having 3D7 are more frequent than those with FC27 alleles. Individuals with parasite having FC27 alleles have high parasite densities suggesting that parasites with FC27 alleles may associate with severity of disease in Kibaha. Low MOI at Kibaha suggests low malaria transmission rate. W. Kidima and G. Nkwengulila Copyright © 2015 W. Kidima and G. Nkwengulila. All rights reserved. Human Coinfection with Borrelia burgdorferi and Babesia microti in the United States Mon, 30 Nov 2015 06:48:23 +0000 Borrelia burgdorferi, the causative agent of Lyme disease, and Babesia microti, a causative agent of babesiosis, are increasingly implicated in the growing tick-borne disease burden in the northeastern United States. These pathogens are transmitted via the bite of an infected tick vector, Ixodes scapularis, which is capable of harboring and inoculating a host with multiple pathogens simultaneously. Clinical presentation of the diseases is heterogeneous and ranges from mild flu-like symptoms to near-fatal cardiac arrhythmias. While the reason for the variability is not known, the possibility exists that concomitant infection with both B. burgdorferi and B. microti may synergistically increase disease severity. In an effort to clarify the current state of understanding regarding coinfection with B. burgdorferi and B. microti, in this review, we discuss the geographical distribution and pathogenesis of Lyme disease and babesiosis in the United States, the immunological response of humans to B. burgdorferi or B. microti infection, the existing knowledge regarding coinfection disease pathology, and critical factors that have led to ambiguity in the literature regarding coinfection, in order to eliminate confusion in future experimental design and investigation. Kristen L. Knapp and Nancy A. Rice Copyright © 2015 Kristen L. Knapp and Nancy A. Rice. All rights reserved. Molecular Characterization and Risk Factors of Giardia duodenalis among School Children from La Habana, Cuba Sun, 29 Nov 2015 12:52:12 +0000 Giardia duodenalis is considered the most common protozoan infecting humans worldwide. Molecular characterization of G. duodenalis isolates has revealed the existence of eight groups (assemblages A to H) which differ in their host distribution. A cross-sectional study was conducted in 639 children from La Habana between January and December 2013. Two assemblage-specific PCRs were carried out for the molecular characterization. The overall prevalence of Giardia infection was 11.9%. DNA from 63 of 76 (82.9%) samples was successfully amplified by PCR-tpi, while 58 from 76 (76.3%) were detected by PCRE1-HF. Similar results by both PCRs were obtained in 54 from 76 samples (71%). According to these analyses, assemblage B and mixed assemblages A + B account for most of the Giardia infections in the cohort of children tested. Our current study identified assemblage B as predominant genotype in children infected with Giardia. Univariate analysis indicated that omission of washing hands before eating and keeping dogs at home were significant risk factors for a Giardia infection. In the future, novel molecular tools for a better discrimination of assemblages at the subassemblages level are needed to verify possible correlations between Giardia genotypes and symptomatology of giardiasis. Luis Enrique Jerez Puebla, Fidel A. Núñez, Isabel Martínez Silva, Lázara Rojas Rivero, Marta Martínez González, Yuliet Méndez Sutil, Lucía Ayllón Valdés, Iraís Atencio Millán, and Norbert Müller Copyright © 2015 Luis Enrique Jerez Puebla et al. All rights reserved.