Table of Contents
Journal of Powder Technology
Volume 2013 (2013), Article ID 843784, 11 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2013/843784
Research Article

Mathematical Development and Comparison of a Hybrid PBM-DEM Description of a Continuous Powder Mixing Process

1Department of Chemical and Biochemical Engineering, Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey, Piscataway, NJ 08854, USA
2Tridiagonal Solutions Pvt. Ltd., Pune 411007, India

Received 8 October 2012; Revised 30 November 2012; Accepted 1 December 2012

Academic Editor: Thierry Barriere

Copyright © 2013 Maitraye Sen et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. A. Goršek and P. Glavič, “Design of batch versus continuous processes—part I: single-purpose equipment,” Chemical Engineering Research and Design, vol. 75, no. 7, pp. 709–717, 1997. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  2. H. Leuenberger, “New trends in the production of pharmaceutical granules: batch versus continuous processing,” European Journal of Pharmaceutics and Biopharmaceutics, vol. 52, no. 3, pp. 289–296, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  3. P. McKenzie, S. Kiang, J. Tom, A. Erik Rubin, and M. Futran, “Can pharmaceutical process development become high tech?” AIChE Journal, vol. 52, no. 12, pp. 3990–3994, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  4. S. Adam, D. Suzzi, C. Radeke, and J. G. Khinast, “An integrated Quality by Design (QbD) approach towards design space definition of a blending unit operation by Discrete Element Method (DEM) simulation,” European Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences, vol. 42, no. 1-2, pp. 106–115, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  5. S. D. Schaber, D. I. Gerogiorgis, R. Ramachandran, J. M. B. Evans, P. I. Barton, and B. L. Trout, “Economic analysis of integrated continuous and batch pharmaceutical manufacturing: a case study,” Industrial and Engineering Chemistry Research, vol. 50, no. 17, pp. 10083–10092, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  6. A. Gorsek and P. Glavic, “Design of batch versus continuous processes: part 2: multi-purpose equipment,” Transactions of IchemE, vol. 75, pp. 709–717, 1997. View at Google Scholar
  7. K. Plumb, “Continuous processing in the pharmaceutical industry: changing the mind set,” Chemical Engineering Research and Design, vol. 83, no. 6 A, pp. 730–738, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  8. H. Leuenberger and G. Betz, “Granulation process control-production of pharmaceutical granules: the classical batch concept and the problem of scale-up,” Granulation, vol. 98, 2007. View at Google Scholar
  9. F. Boukouvala, V. Niotis, R. Ramachandran, F. Muzzio, and M. G. Ierapetritou, “Dynamic flow-sheet modeling and sensitivity analysis of a continuous tablet manufacturing process: an integrated approach,” Computers and Chemical Engineering, vol. 42, pp. 30–47, 2012. View at Google Scholar
  10. R. Ramachandran, J. Arjunan, A. Chaudhury, and M. Ierapetritou, “Model-based control-loop performance assesment of a continuous direct compaction pharmaceutical process,” Journal of Pharmaceutical Innovation, vol. 6, pp. 249–263, 2011. View at Google Scholar
  11. B. Remy, Granular flow, segregation and agglomeration in bladed mixers [Ph.D. thesis], Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey, 2010.
  12. H. Berthiaux, K. Marikh, V. Mizonov, D. Ponomarev, and E. Barantzeva, “Modeling continuous powder mixing by means of the theory of Markov chains,” Particulate Science and Technology, vol. 22, no. 4, pp. 379–389, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  13. O. S. Sudah, A. W. Chester, J. A. Kowalski, J. W. Beeckman, and F. J. Muzzio, “Quantitative characterization of mixing processes in rotary calciners,” Powder Technology, vol. 126, no. 2, pp. 166–173, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  14. F. Boukouvala, F. J. Muzzio, and M. G. Ierapetritou, “Design space of pharmaceutical processes using data-driven-based methods,” Journal of Pharmaceutical Innovation, vol. 5, no. 3, pp. 119–137, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  15. P. M. Portillo, M. G. Ierapetritou, and F. J. Muzzio, “Effects of rotation rate, mixing angle, and cohesion in two continuous powder mixers-A statistical approach,” Powder Technology, vol. 194, no. 3, pp. 217–227, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  16. P. M. Portillo, F. J. Muzzio, and M. G. Ierapetritou, “Characterizing powder mixing processes utilizing compartment models,” International Journal of Pharmaceutics, vol. 320, no. 1-2, pp. 14–22, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  17. P. M. Portillo, F. J. Muzzio, and M. G. Ierapetritou, “Using compartment modeling to investigate mixing behavior of a continuous mixer,” Journal of Pharmaceutical Innovation, vol. 3, no. 3, pp. 161–174, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  18. Y. Gao, F. Muzzio, and M. G. Ierapetritou, “Investigation on the effect of blade patterns on continuous solid mixing performance,” The Canadian Journal of Chemical Engineering, vol. 89, pp. 969–984, 2010. View at Google Scholar
  19. Y. Gao, A. Vanarase, F. Muzzio, and M. Ierapetritou, “Characterizing continuous powder mixing using residence time distribution,” Chemical Engineering Science, vol. 66, no. 3, pp. 417–425, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  20. P. M. Portillo, F. J. Muzzio, and M. G. Ierapetritou, “Hybrid DEM-compartment modeling approach for granular mixing,” AIChE Journal, vol. 53, no. 1, pp. 119–128, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  21. B. Freireich, J. Li, J. Litster, and C. Wassgren, “Incorporating particle flow information from discrete element simulations in population balance models of mixer-coaters,” Chemical Engineering Science, vol. 66, no. 16, pp. 3592–3604, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  22. A. Dubey, A. Sarkar, M. Ierapetritou, C. R. Wassgren, and F. J. Muzzio, “Computational approaches for studying the granular dynamics of continuous blending processes, 1—DEM based methods,” Macromolecular Materials and Engineering, vol. 296, no. 3-4, pp. 290–307, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  23. F. Boukouvala, A. Dubey, A. Vanarase, R. Ramachandran, F. J. Muzzio, and M. Ierapetritou, “Computational approaches for studying the granular dynamics of continuous blending processes, 2 population balance and data-based,” Macromolecular Materials and Engineering, vol. 297, pp. 9–19, 2012. View at Google Scholar
  24. B. Remy, J. G. Khinast, and B. J. Glasser, “Discrete element simulation of free flowing grains in a four-bladed mixer,” AIChE Journal, vol. 55, no. 8, pp. 2035–2048, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  25. A. Hassanpour, H. Tan, A. Bayly, P. Gopalkrishnan, B. Ng, and M. Ghadiri, “Analysis of particle motion in a paddle mixer using Discrete Element Method (DEM),” Powder Technology, vol. 206, no. 1-2, pp. 189–194, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  26. Y. Tsuji, T. Kawaguchi, and T. Tanaka, “Discrete particle simulation of two-dimensional fluidized bed,” Powder Technology, vol. 77, no. 1, pp. 79–87, 1993. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  27. H. P. Zhu, Z. Y. Zhou, R. Y. Yang, and A. B. Yu, “Discrete particle simulation of particulate systems: theoretical developments,” Chemical Engineering Science, vol. 62, no. 13, pp. 3378–3396, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  28. M. Moakher, T. Shinbrot, and F. J. Muzzio, “Experimentally validated computations of flow, mixing and segregation of non-cohesive grains in 3D tumbling blenders,” Powder Technology, vol. 109, no. 1–3, pp. 58–71, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  29. O. S. Sudah, P. E. Arratia, A. Alexander, and F. J. Muzzio, “Simulation and experiments of mixing and segregation in a tote blender,” AIChE Journal, vol. 51, no. 3, pp. 836–844, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  30. P. E. Arratia, N. H. Duong, F. J. Muzzio, P. Godbole, and S. Reynolds, “A study of the mixing and segregation mechanisms in the Bohle Tote blender via DEM simulations,” Powder Technology, vol. 164, no. 1, pp. 50–57, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  31. T. Hotta, M. Naito, J. Szépvölgyi, S. Endoh, and K. Nogi, “Effect of rotor shape on particle composite process by a high-speed elliptical-rotor-type mixer,” Kagaku Kogaku Ronbunshu, vol. 27, no. 1, pp. 142–143, 2001. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  32. J. Kano, H. Yabune, H. Mio, and F. Saito, “Grinding of talc particulates by a high-speed rotor mixer,” Advanced Powder Technology, vol. 12, no. 2, pp. 207–214, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  33. M. A. I. Schutyser, W. J. Briels, A. Rinzema, and R. M. Boom, “Numerical simulation and PEPT measurements of a 3D conical helical-blade mixer: a high potential solids mixer for solid-state fermentation,” Biotechnology and Bioengineering, vol. 84, no. 1, pp. 29–39, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  34. R. L. Stewart, J. Bridgwater, Y. C. Zhou, and A. B. Yu, “Simulated and measured flow of granules in a bladed mixer- A detailed comparison,” Chemical Engineering Science, vol. 56, no. 19, pp. 5457–5471, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  35. B. Chaudhuri, F. J. Muzzio, and M. S. Tomassone, “Modeling of heat transfer in granular flow in rotating vessels,” Chemical Engineering Science, vol. 61, no. 19, pp. 6348–6360, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  36. A. B. Yu, “Discrete element method: an effective way for particle scale research of particulate matter,” Engineering Computations, vol. 21, no. 2–4, pp. 205–214, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  37. M. Sen and R. Ramachandran, “A multi-dimensional population balance model approach to continuous powder mixing processes,” Advanced Powder Technology, vol. 24, no. 1, pp. 51–59, 2013. View at Google Scholar
  38. M. Oh and C. C. Pantelides, “A modelling and simulation language for combined lumped and distributed parameter systems,” Computers and Chemical Engineering, vol. 20, no. 6-7, pp. 611–633, 1996. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  39. M. L. Winkel, L. C. Zullo, P. J. T. Verheijen, and C. C. Pantelides, “Modelling and simulation of the operation of an industrial batch plant using gPROMS,” Computers and Chemical Engineering, vol. 19, no. 1, pp. 571–576, 1995. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  40. F. Puel, G. Févotte, and J. P. Klein, “Simulation and analysis of industrial crystallization processes through multidimensional population balance equations. Part 1: a resolution algorithm based on the method of classes,” Chemical Engineering Science, vol. 58, no. 16, pp. 3715–3727, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  41. R. Gunawan, I. Fusman, and R. D. Braatz, “High resolution algorithms for multidimensional population balance equations,” AIChE Journal, vol. 50, no. 11, pp. 2738–2749, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  42. C. D. Immanuel and F. J. Doyle, “Solution technique for a multi-dimensional population balance model describing granulation processes,” Powder Technology, vol. 156, no. 2-3, pp. 213–225, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  43. R. Ramachandran, C. D. Immanuel, F. Stepanek, J. D. Litster, and F. J. Doyle, “A mechanistic model for breakage in population balances of granulation: theoretical kernel development and experimental validation,” Chemical Engineering Research and Design, vol. 87, no. 4, pp. 598–614, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  44. R. Ramachandran and P. I. Barton, “Effective parameter estimation within a multi-dimensional population balance model framework,” Chemical Engineering Science, vol. 65, no. 16, pp. 4884–4893, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  45. R. Ramachandran, M. A. Ansari, A. Chaudhury, A. Kapadia, A. V. Prakash, and F. Stepanek, “A quantitative assessment of the influence of primary particle size distribution on granule inhomogeneity,” Chemical Engineering Science, vol. 71, pp. 104–110, 2011. View at Google Scholar
  46. D. Ramkrishna, Population Balances, Academic Press, San Diego, Calif, USA, 2000.
  47. A. Dubey, A. U. Vanarase, and F. J. Muzzio, “Effect of process parameters on the performance of a continuous blender: a DEM based study,” AIChE Journal, vol. 58, p. 3676, 2012. View at Google Scholar
  48. A. U. Vanarase, M. Alcalà, J. I. Jerez Rozo, F. J. Muzzio, and R. J. Romañach, “Real-time monitoring of drug concentration in a continuous powder mixing process using NIR spectroscopy,” Chemical Engineering Science, vol. 65, no. 21, pp. 5728–5733, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  49. Y. Gao, F. Muzzio, and M. Ierapetritou, “Characterization of feeder effects on continuous solid mixing using fourier series analysis,” AIChE Journal, vol. 57, no. 5, pp. 1144–1153, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  50. A. U. Vanarase and F. J. Muzzio, “Effect of operating conditions and design parameters in a continuous powder mixer,” Powder Technology, vol. 208, no. 1, pp. 26–36, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  51. M. Sen, R. Singh, A. Vanarase, J. John, and R. Ramachandran, “Multi-dimensional population bal- ance modeling and experimental validation of continuous powder mixing processes,” Chemical Engineering Science, vol. 80, pp. 349–360, 2012. View at Google Scholar
  52. R. Gunawan, I. Fusman, and R. D. Braatz, “Parallel high-resolution finite volume simulation of particulate processes,” AIChE Journal, vol. 54, no. 6, pp. 1449–1458, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  53. S. Ganesan and L. Tobiska, “An operator-splitting finite element method for the efficient parallel solution of multidimensional population balance systems,” Chemical Engineering Science, vol. 69, pp. 59–68, 2011. View at Google Scholar