Table of Contents

This article has been retracted as it is essentially identical in title and technical content with a previously published paper titled “Coding ATC incident data using HFACS: Inter-coder consensus”, by “Nikki S. Olsen” in “Safety Science”, volume 49, Issue 10, pp.1365–1370, June 2011.

International Journal of Quality, Statistics, and Reliability
Volume 2011, Article ID 379129, 8 pages
Research Article

Coding ATC Incident Data Using HFACS: Intercoder Consensus

1Engineering Institute of Corps of Engineers, PLA University of Science and Technology, No. 1, Haifuxiang, Nanjing 210007, China
2Military Representative Office of the General Department of Armaments in Zhengzhou Area, No. 23, Eastern Rantun Road, Zhengzhou 450051, China
3Military Representative Office of the General Department of Armaments in Tianjin Area, No. 7, Yuhong Road, Hebei District, Tianjin 300240, China

Received 26 April 2011; Accepted 26 September 2011

Academic Editor: Kai Yuan Cai

Copyright © 2011 Liang Wang et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


Reliability studies for coding contributing factors of incident reports in high hazard industries are rarely conducted and reported. Although the Human Factors Analysis and Classification System (HFACS) appears to have a larger number of such studies completed than most other systems doubt exists as the accuracy and comparability of results between studies due to aspects of methodology and reporting. This paper reports on a trial conducted on HFACS to determine its reliability in the context of military air traffic control (ATC). Two groups participated in the trial: one group comprised of specialists in the field of human factors, and the other group comprised air traffic controllers. All participants were given standardized training via a self-paced workbook and then read 14 incident reports and coded the associated findings. The results show similarly low consensus for both groups of participants. Several reasons for the results are proposed associated with the HFACS model, the context within which incident reporting occurs in real organizations and the conduct of the studies.