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Journal of Robotics
Volume 2011, Article ID 543060, 10 pages
Research Article

Stroke Rehabilitation in Frail Elderly with the Robotic Training Device ACRE: A Randomized Controlled Trial and Cost-Effectiveness Study

1Department of Sustainable Productivity, TNO, P.O. Box 718, 2130 AS Hoofddorp, The Netherlands
2Department of Life Style, TNO, P.O. Box 2215, 2301 CE Leiden, The Netherlands
3Department of Medical Decision Making, Leiden University Medical Centre, P.O. Box 9600, 2300 RC Leiden, The Netherlands
4Pieter van Foreest-De Bieslandhof, Nursing Home and Rehabilitation Centre, Beukenlaan 2, 2612 VC Delft, The Netherlands
5Laurens-Antonius Binnenweg, Nursing Home and Rehabilitation Centre, Nieuwe Binnenweg 33, 3014 GC Rotterdam, The Netherlands
6Department of Technical Sciences, TNO, P.O. Box 155, 2600 AD Delft, The Netherlands
7Department of Public Health and Primary Care, Leiden University Medical Centre, P.O. Box 9600, 2300 RC Leiden, The Netherlands

Received 31 May 2011; Accepted 20 September 2011

Academic Editor: Ludovic Saint-Bauzel

Copyright © 2011 M. Schoone et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


The ACRE (ACtive REhabilitation) robotic device is developed to enhance therapeutic treatment of upper limbs after stroke. The aim of this study is to assess effects and costs of ACRE training for frail elderly patients and to establish if ACRE can be a valuable addition to standard therapy in nursing home rehabilitation. The study was designed as randomized controlled trial, one group receiving therapy as usual and the other receiving additional ACRE training. Changes in motor abilities, stroke impact, quality of life and emotional well-being were assessed. In total, 24 patients were included. In this small number no significant effects of the ACRE training were found. A large number of 136 patients were excluded. Main reasons for exclusion were lack of physiological or cognitive abilities. Further improvement of the ACRE can best be focused on making the system suitable for self-training and development of training software for activities of daily living.