(a) Black Falcon laparoscopic robot
(b) Robotic telesurgical workstation by UCB & UCSF
Figure 4: (a) Black Falcon robotic system developed at MIT for laparoscopic surgery [9]. (b) Laparoscopic telesurgical workstation jointly developed by the UC Berkeley and UC San Francisco [10]. Both systems aim to enhance the dexterity and sensation of minimally invasive surgery through using scaled robotic manipulators under the control of the surgeon.