(a) Palpation instrument and tactile display device
(b) Endoscopic grasper
Figure 5: (a) A remote palpation and display device developed by Harvard for MIS. Tactile information of the palpated tissue is transmitted from the organ tissue via the endoscopic device to the surgeon’s fingertips during MIS [11]. (b) Tactile sensor array made of PVDF piezoelectric films at Concordia University is integrated in the jaws of an endoscopic grasper to measure tissue stiffness characteristics [12].