Journal of Robotics / 2017 / Article / Tab 1

Review Article

Adaptive Foot in Lower-Limb Prostheses

Table 1

Ranges of motions of human foot joints.

MotionHuman foot jointPlane of movementRange of motion

Dorsiflexion & plantarflexionTCSagittalN/A
STSagittal−2.5° : 5°

Inversion & eversionSTTransverse−10° : 20°
MT - TNTransverseN/A

Abduction-adductionSTFrontal−10° : 20°

Flexion & extensionMT-CCSagittalN/A
MTP (big toe)Sagittal(−) 80° : 40°
MTP (toes 2–5)Sagittal(−) 60° : 40°
Proximal IP (big toe)Sagittal0° : 90°
Proximal IP (toes 2–5)Sagittal0° : 60°
Distal IPSagittalHyper: 90°

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