Journal of Robotics / 2017 / Article / Tab 6

Review Article

Adaptive Foot in Lower-Limb Prostheses

Table 6

Comparison of hybrid adaptive foot prostheses/foot designs in lower-limb prostheses.

CountryName/year/reference numberWeightPassive JointActuatorAxis of rotationType of mechanismMovable rangesAttaching methodMaterial

JapanParallel four-bar linkage humanoid robot (2007)  
[20]
0.76 kgToe mechanism1 DC servo motorMediolateral axis at MTP jointActuator based0 : 44°Humanoid ankleExtra super duralumin

USAEnergy recycling foot
(2010)
[21, 22]
1.37 kgSprings and clutches based mechanism2 DC motorsMediolateral axis at MTP jointCoil Springs, clutch motorN/APyramid adapter7075-T6 Aluminum, Stainless steel, Carbon/fiberglass

JapanAdaptive bipedal deformable feet  
(2012)  
[23]
1.2 kgTorsional Springs2 Servo motorsMediolateral axis at MTP jointTorsional springs and servo motor combinationN/ANut and BoltSuper soft urethane resin

GermanyAn adaptive sensor foot for a bipedal and quadruped robot (2012) 
[24]
N/ABowden cables and dampers2 BLDC motorsMediolateral axis at MTP jointWindlass mechanismroll −20° to 10° pitch −30° to 20° yaw −10° to 10°CouplingRapid prototyping material

BelgiumThe AMP-foot 1.0 
(2012)  
[25]
3 kgSpring-based gear mechanismN/AMediolateral axis at MTP jointSpring, planter gear mechanism0 : 30°CouplingAluminum

BelgiumThe AMP-foot 2.0 
(2013)  
[26, 27]
2.5 kgLever arm and spring combined mechanism1 DC motorMediolateral axis at MTP jointSprings and SEA0 : 45°Prosthesis ankle jointAluminum

United KingdomVirtual prototyping of a semiactive transfemoral prosthetic leg 
(2015)  
[28]
2.3 kgSprings1 DC motorMediolateral axis at MTP jointSEA and springsN/ANut and boltN/A

ItalyVariable compliant humanoid foot (2016)  
[29]
0.52 kgLeaf springs, cam followers based method1 DC geared motorLongitudinal axis of the footLeaf spring, motor actuatedN/AHumanoid ankleAluminum, rubber

ChinaBioinspired tunable stiffness robotic foot (2017)  
[30]
N/ASpringStepper motorMediolateral axis and longitudinal axisSpring and ball screwN/ABall jointN/A

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