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Journal of the Renin-Angiotensin-Aldosterone System is a peer-reviewed, open access journal published as a resource for biomedical professionals, including basic scientists and clinicians, primarily with an active interest in the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system in humans and other mammals.
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Exploring the Impact of ACE Inhibition in Immunity and Disease
Angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) is a zinc-dependent dipeptidyl carboxypeptidase and is crucial in the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) but also implicated in immune regulation. Intrinsic ACE has been detected in several immune cell populations, including macrophages and neutrophils, where its overexpression results in enhanced bactericidal and antitumour responses, independent of angiotensin II. With roles in antigen presentation and inflammation, the impact of ACE inhibitors must be explored to understand how ACE inhibition may impact our ability to clear infections or malignancy, particularly in the wake of the coronavirus (SARS-CoV2) pandemic and as antibiotic resistance grows. Patients using ACE inhibitors may be more at risk of postsurgical complications as ACE inhibition in human neutrophils results in decreased ROS and phagocytosis whilst angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs) have no effect. In contrast, ACE is also elevated in certain autoimmune diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis and lupus, and its inhibition benefits patient outcome where inflammatory immune cells are overactive. Although the ACE autoimmune landscape is changing, some studies have conflicting results and require further input. This review seeks to highlight the need for further research covering ACE inhibitor therapeutics and their potential role in improving autoimmune conditions, cancer, or how they may contribute to immunocompromise during infection and neurodegenerative diseases. Understanding ACE inhibition in immune cells is a developing field that will alter how ACE inhibitors are designed in future and aid in developing therapeutic interventions.
Estradiol Supplement or Induced Hypertension May Attenuate the Angiotensin II Type 1 Receptor Antagonist-Promoted Renal Blood Flow Response to Graded Angiotensin II Administration in Ovariectomized Rats
Backgrounds. Estrogen replacement therapy (ERT) and hypertension may influence females’ renin-angiotensin system (RAS) and its components. The angiotensin II (Ang II) type 1 receptor (AT1R) antagonist (losartan) may promote renal blood flow (RBF), and it is widely used in the clinic to control hypertension. The main objective of this study was the effects of estradiol or induced hypertension on RBF response to Ang II in losartan-treated ovariectomized (OVX) rats. Methods. Two groups of OVX rats were treated with placebo (group 1) and estradiol (group 2) for period of four weeks, and another group of OVX rats was subjected to induce hypertension by two-kidney one clip (2K1C) model (group 3). All the groups were subjected to the surgical procedure under anesthesia, and AT1R was blocked by losartan. RBF and renal vascular resistance (RVR) responses to Ang II administration were determined and compared. Results. Mean arterial (MAP) and renal perfusion (RPP) pressures in group 3 and uterus weight (UT) in group 2 were significantly more than other groups (). Ang II infusion resulted in dose-related percentage change increase in RBF and decrease in RVR. However, these responses in the OVX-estradiol and OVX-hypertensive rats were significantly lower than in the OVX-control group (). For instance, at the dose of 1000 ng/kg/min of Ang II administration, the percentage change of RBF was , , and in the groups of 1 to 3, respectively. Conclusion. Losartan prescription in some conditions such as hypertension or ERT could worsen RBF and RVR responses to Ang II.
The Effect of the Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitor on Bone Health in Castrated Hypertensive Rats Is Mediated via the Kinin-Kallikrein System
Background. In previous studies, angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor (ACEI) use was associated with increased bone loss, while an angiotensin II type I receptor blocker had no effect on bone loss in elder subjects, which suggested that the effect of ACEI on bone loss was not mediated through the classical renin-angiotensin system. In this study, we set to investigate whether the effect of ACEI on bone deterioration was mediated via the kinin-kallikrein system. Methods. Six-month-old male and female spontaneously hypertensive rats were used. The effect of captopril on blood pressure, serum Ang II, and bradykinin concentration was measured in intact rats. Ovariectomy and orchidectomy were performed to establish an osteoporosis model in female and male rats, respectively. Captopril and the bradykinin receptor blocker icatibant (HOE140) were administered after operation for 12 weeks. Serum Ang II and bradykinin concentration, bone turnover markers, bone mineral density (BMD), and bone microarchitecture were evaluated. Femur samples were subjected to a mechanical test. Results. Captopril decreased blood pressure and serum Ang II concentration and increased serum bradykinin concentration in intact rats (). After castration, captopril decreased serum Ang II concentration (); in female rats, icatibant increased serum Ang II concentration (). Captopril increased serum bradykinin concentration (); in male rats, icatibant decreased serum bradykinin concentration (). Captopril increased the rat urine deoxypyridinoline-creatinine ratio (DPD/Cr) and serum osteocalcin concentration (). Icatibant decreased urine DPD/Cr in male rats () and increased osteocalcin concentration in female rats (). Captopril increased cancellous BMD in castrated hypertensive rats (), and icatibant further increased cancellous BMD (), which was due to the increased trabecular bone number. In mechanical testing, ACEI increased bone strength (), and icatibant further improved it (). Conclusion. ACEI decreased bone deterioration in both male and female hypertensive rats, and the bradykinin receptor blocker further decreased bone deterioration.
The Race for ACE: Targeting Angiotensin-Converting Enzymes (ACE) in SARS-CoV-2 Infection
The SARS-CoV-2 virus is spreading around the world, and its clinical manifestation COVID-19 is challenging medical, economic, and social systems. With more and more scientific and social media reports on the COVID-19 pandemic appearing, differences in geographical presentations and clinical management occur. Since ACE2 (angiotensin-converting enzyme 2) is the gatekeeper receptor for the SARS-CoV-2 virus in the upper bronchial system, we here focus on the central role of the renin-angiotensin aldosterone system (RAAS) in the SARS-CoV-2 virus infection, the role of pharmacological RAAS inhibitors, and specific genetic aspects, i.e., single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) for the clinical outcome of COVID-19. We aimed to bring together clinical, epidemiological, molecular, and pathophysiological and pharmacological data/observations on cardiovascular aspects in the actual SARS-CoV-2 virus pandemic. In detail, we will report controversies about the Yin-Yan between ACE2 and ACE1 and potential implications for the treatment of hypertension, coronary artery disease, and heart failure. Here, we summarize the encouraging and dynamic global effort of multiple biomedical disciplines resulted in astonishing fight against COVID-19 targeting the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system, yet the race for ACE just begun.
The Association of Serum AIM2 Level with the Prediction and Short-Term Prognosis of Coronary Artery Disease
Objective. Coronary artery disease (CAD), one of the commonest cardiovascular diseases, has high morbidity and mortality. Absent in melanoma 2 (AIM2) is involved in atherosclerosis, and no clinical trials have explored the association between AIM2 and CAD. Therefore, this study was aimed at evaluating the predictive and short-term prognostic value of AIM2 for CAD. Methods. 279 patients who underwent coronary angiography were enrolled in this study. The AIM2 level was detected from the serum of collected artery blood samples. The association of serum AIM2 level with the prediction and short-term prognosis of CAD was further assessed. Results. The serum AIM2 level of the CAD group was significantly higher than the control group ( vs. ; ). AIM2 was demonstrated to be the risk factor of CAD [odds ratio, 1.589; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.346-1.876; ]. The area under the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve of 0.738 showed the diagnostic value of AIM2 in CAD. Additionally, AIM2 was an independent predictor of major adverse cardiovascular events (hazard ratio, 1.453; 95% CI, 1.086-1.945; ), and CAD patients with high AIM2 levels (>4.9 ng/mL) had a markedly lower survival rate (log-rank ). Conclusions. The serum AIM2 ng/mL can predict CAD to a certain extent. AIM2 might be an independent predictor of its short-term poor prognosis.
Cardiorenal Disease in COVID-19 Patients
Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is an illness caused by a novel coronavirus called severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). Mutations in the genetic coding and the variations in the spike proteins are critical for the virus’s mechanism of facilitating fusion with the human host, making the disease more severe. Recent research indicates that comorbidities including diabetes, hypertension, renal disease, heart failure, and atherosclerosis play a significant role in the severity and high mortality rates of (COVID-19), suggesting that perhaps the metabolic syndrome and its components are associated with COVID-19 morbidity. Primarily, angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) receptor is identified as the entrance receptor of SARS-CoV-2. Increased ACE2 expression, endothelial dysfunction plays a vital role in the progression and severity of complications developed due to COVID-19. In this review, we will discuss the association and management of cardiorenal disease and COVID-19.