Journal of Renewable Energy / 2018 / Article / Tab 3

Research Article

Mapping the Wind Energy Potential of Sweden: A Sociotechnical Wind Atlas

Table 3

Restrictions and actions applied for the sociotechnical wind atlas.

Restriction ActionWhy

Roads and waterwaysA buffer radius of 200 meters has been applied for further restrictions.A certain distance needs to be applied to roads in case a wind turbine should break and/or fall. Adding roads to the atlas also serves as an important feature in the planning process, as the infrastructure is important in the construction phase.

RailwaysA buffer radius of 200 meters has been applied for further restrictions.A certain distance needs to be applied to railways in case a wind turbine should break and/or fall. Adding railways to the atlas also serves as an important feature in the planning process, as the infrastructure is important in the construction phase.

Buildings (residential, industrial, and public)A buffer radius of 200 meters has been applied for further restrictions.Distances to buildings in Sweden are determined by the noise and flicker emissions from wind turbines, which vary from each wind project. Therefore, a radius of 200 meters has been applied as a minimum distance, though it might be more or less for a given site.

Protected buildings (castles, monuments, etc.)A buffer radius of 200 meters has been applied for further restrictions.A distance of 200 meters has been applied to protected buildings, as the decentralized Swedish political system allows members of municipalities to complain about new wind projects. Protected buildings have often been the source of such complaints in international public inquiries [19].

Protected areas (Natura 2000)No buffer radius has been applied, only the area itself.According to the stakeholder analysis, it was important to avoid wind turbines in scenic areas, which are often restricted from any building projects. Sweden has several areas that are protected due to various reasons, such as rare bird species, large population of wildlife, certain tree types, etc.

LakesNo buffer radius has been applied, only the area itself.Despite the fact that not all Swedish lakes are protected areas, this part has been considered a restriction due to the fact that installation of wind turbines in lakes would require offshore wind turbines and foundations, which are costlier than their onshore counterparts.

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