Table of Contents Author Guidelines Submit a Manuscript
Journal of Sensors
Volume 2012, Article ID 539095, 17 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2012/539095
Review Article

Sensing and Demodulation of Special Long-Period Fiber Gratings Induced by Scanning Laser Pulses

Key Laboratory of Optoelectronic Technology and Systems of the Ministry of Education of China, Chongqing University, Chongqing 400044, China

Received 16 March 2012; Revised 28 September 2012; Accepted 8 October 2012

Academic Editor: Eugenio Martinelli

Copyright © 2012 Tao Zhu et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. T. Zhu, Y. J. Rao, J. L. Wang, and Y. Song, “A highly sensitive fiber-optic refractive index sensor based on an edge-written long-period fiber grating,” IEEE Photonics Technology Letters, vol. 19, no. 24, pp. 1946–1948, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  2. Y. J. Rao, Y. P. Wang, Z. L. Ran, and T. Zhu, “Novel fiber-optic sensors based on long-period fiber gratings written by high-frequency CO2 laser pulses,” Journal of Lightwave Technology, vol. 21, no. 5, pp. 1320–1327, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  3. Y. P. Wang, D. N. Wang, W. Jin, Y. J. Rao, and G. D. Peng, “Asymmetric long period fiber gratings fabricated by use of CO2 laser to carve periodic grooves on the optical fiber,” Applied Physics Letters, vol. 89, no. 15, Article ID 151105, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  4. T. Zhu, Y. Song, Y. J. Rao, and Y. Zhu, “Highly sensitive optical refractometer based on edge-written ultra-long-period fiber grating formed by periodic grooves,” IEEE Sensors Journal, vol. 9, no. 6, pp. 678–681, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  5. T. Zhu, K. S. Chiang, Y. J. Rao, C. H. Shi, Y. Song, and M. Liu, “Characterization of long-period fiber gratings written by CO2 laser in twisted single-mode fibers,” Journal of Lightwave Technology, vol. 27, no. 21, pp. 4863–4869, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  6. T. Zhu, Y. J. Rao, Y. Song, K. S. Chiang, and M. Liu, “Highly sensitive temperature-independent strain sensor based on a long-period fiber grating with a CO2-laser engraved rotary structure,” IEEE Photonics Technology Letters, vol. 21, no. 8, pp. 543–545, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  7. Y. P. Wang, D. N. Wang, and W. Jin, “CO2 laser-grooved long period fiber grating temperature sensor system based on intensity modulation,” Applied Optics, vol. 45, no. 31, pp. 7966–7970, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  8. L. L. Shi, T. Zhu, Y. E. Fan, K. S. Chiang, and Y. J. Rao, “Torsion sensing with a fiber ring laser incorporating a pair of rotary long-period fiber gratings,” Optics Communications, vol. 284, no. 22, pp. 5299–5302, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  9. A. M. Vengsarkar, P. J. Lemaire, J. B. Judkins, V. Bhatia, T. Erdogan, and J. E. Sipe, “Long-period fiber gratings as band-rejection filters,” Journal of Lightwave Technology, vol. 14, no. 1, pp. 58–64, 1996. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  10. V. Bhatia and A. M. Vengsarkar, “Optical fiber long-period grating sensors,” Optics Letters, vol. 21, no. 9, pp. 692–694, 1996. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  11. H. Kawano, H. Muentz, Y. Sato, J. Nishimae, and A. Sugitatsu, “Reduction of transmission spectrum shift of long-period fiber gratings by a UV-preexposure method,” Journal of Lightwave Technology, vol. 19, no. 8, pp. 1221–1227, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  12. B. O. Guan, H. Y. Tam, S. L. Ho, S. Y. Liu, and X. Y. Dong, “Growth of long-period gratings in H2-loaded fiber after 193-nm UV inscription,” IEEE Photonics Technology Letters, vol. 12, no. 6, pp. 642–644, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  13. X. Chen, K. Zhou, L. Zhang, and I. Bennion, “Optical biochemical sensors based on long-period fibre gratings UV-inscribed in D-fibre with enhanced sensitivity by HF etching process,” in Proceedings of the SPIE International Conference on Advanced Laser Technologies: Biomedical Optics (ALT '03), vol. 5486, pp. 187–191, September 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  14. I. K. Hwang, S. H. Yun, and B. Y. Kim, “Long-period fiber gratings based on periodic microbends,” Optics Letters, vol. 24, no. 18, pp. 1263–1265, 1999. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  15. G. Humbert and A. Malki, “Characterizations at very high temperature of electric arc-induced long-period fiber gratings,” Optics Communications, vol. 208, no. 4–6, pp. 329–335, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  16. G. Rego and O. Ivanov, “Investigation of the mechanisms of formation of long-period gratings arc-induced in pure-silica-core fibres,” Optics Communications, vol. 284, no. 8, pp. 2137–2140, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  17. W. J. Bock, J. Chen, P. Mikulic, T. Eftimov, and M. Korwin-Pawlowski, “Pressure sensing using periodically tapered long-period gratings written in photonic crystal fibres,” Measurement Science and Technology, vol. 18, no. 10, pp. 3098–3102, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  18. G. Humbert, A. Malki, and M. Ketata, “Long-period fiber gratings filters fabrications and characterizations using electric arc in non-hydrogenated fibers,” in Proceedings of the SPIE Active and Passive Optical Components for WDM Communication, vol. 4532, pp. 510–516, August 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  19. G. Rego and O. V. Ivanov, “Two types of resonances in long-period gratings induced by arc discharges in boron/germanium co-doped fibers,” Optics Letters, vol. 32, no. 20, pp. 2984–2986, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  20. D. D. Davis, T. K. Gaylord, E. N. Glytsis, S. G. Kosinski, S. C. Mettler, and A. M. Vengsarkar, “Long-period fibre grating fabrication with focused CO2 laser pulses,” Electronics Letters, vol. 34, no. 3, pp. 302–303, 1998. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  21. D. D. Davis, T. K. Gaylord, E. N. Glytsis, and S. C. Mettler, “CO2 laser-induced long-period fibre gratings: spectral characteristics, cladding modes and polarisation independence,” Electronics Letters, vol. 34, no. 14, pp. 1416–1417, 1998. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  22. D. D. Davis, T. K. Gaylord, E. N. Glytsis, and S. C. Mettler, “Very-high-temperature stable CO2-laser-induced long-period fibre gratings,” Electronics Letters, vol. 35, no. 9, pp. 740–742, 1999. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  23. G. Kakarantzas, T. E. Dimmick, T. A. Birks, R. Le Roux, and P. S. J. Russell, “Miniature all-fiber devices based on CO2 laser microstructuring of tapered fibers,” Optics Letters, vol. 26, no. 15, pp. 1137–1139, 2001. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  24. G. Kakarantzas, T. A. Birks, and P. S. J. Russell, “Structural long-period gratings in photonic crystal fibers,” Optics Letters, vol. 27, no. 12, pp. 1013–1015, 2002. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  25. Y. Zhu, P. Shum, J. H. Chong, M. K. Rao, and C. Lu, “Deep-notch, ultracompact long-period grating in a large-mode-area photonic crystal fiber,” Optics Letters, vol. 28, no. 24, pp. 2467–2469, 2003. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  26. Y. Wang, L. Xiao, D. N. Wang, and W. Jin, “In-fiber polarizer based on a long-period fiber grating written on photonic crystal fiber,” Optics Letters, vol. 32, no. 9, pp. 1035–1037, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  27. H. W. Lee, Y. Liu, and K. S. Chiang, “Writing of long-period fiber gratings in conventional and photonic-crystal polarization-maintaining fibers by CO2 laser pulses,” IEEE Photonics Technology Letters, vol. 20, no. 2, pp. 132–134, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  28. Y. Wang, W. Jin, J. Ju et al., “Long period gratings in air-core photonic bandgap fibers,” Optics Express, vol. 16, no. 4, pp. 2784–2790, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  29. H. Xuan, W. Jin, and M. Zhang, “CO2 laser induced long period gratings in optical microfibers,” Optics Express, vol. 17, no. 24, pp. 21882–21890, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  30. S. Savin, M. J. F. Digonnet, G. S. Kino, and H. J. Shaw, “Tunable mechanically induced long-period fiber gratings,” Optics Letters, vol. 25, no. 10, pp. 710–712, 2000. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  31. T. S. Lee, N. A. George, P. Sureshkumar, P. Radhakrishnan, C. P. G. Vallabhan, and V. P. N. Nampoori, “Chemical sensing with microbent optical fiber,” Optics Letters, vol. 26, no. 20, pp. 1541–1543, 2001. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  32. J. Y. Cho and K. S. Lee, “A birefringence compensation method for mechanically induced long-period fiber gratings,” Optics Communications, vol. 213, no. 4–6, pp. 281–284, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  33. L. Su, K. S. Chiang, and C. Lu, “Microbend-induced mode coupling in a graded-index multimode fiber,” Applied Optics, vol. 44, no. 34, pp. 7394–7402, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  34. P. Steinvurzel, E. D. Moore, E. C. Mägi, B. T. Kuhlmey, and B. J. Eggleton, “Long period grating resonances in photonic bandgap fiber,” Optics Express, vol. 14, no. 7, pp. 3007–3014, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  35. D. Lee, Y. Jung, Y. S. Jeong et al., “Highly polarization-dependent periodic coupling in mechanically induced long period grating over air-silica fibers,” Optics Letters, vol. 31, no. 3, pp. 296–298, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  36. C. Y. Lin, L. A. Wang, and G. W. Chern, “Corrugated long-period fiber gratings as strain, torsion, and bending sensors,” Journal of Lightwave Technology, vol. 19, no. 8, pp. 1159–1168, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  37. L. A. Wang, C. Y. Lin, and G. W. Chern, “A torsion sensor made of a corrugated long period fibre grating,” Measurement Science and Technology, vol. 12, no. 7, pp. 793–799, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  38. O. V. Ivanov and L. A. Wang, “Wavelength shifts of cladding-mode resonance in corrugated long-period fiber gratings under torsion,” Applied Optics, vol. 42, no. 13, pp. 2264–2272, 2003. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  39. W. Ding and S. R. Andrews, “Modal coupling in surface-corrugated long-period-grating fiber tapers,” Optics Letters, vol. 33, no. 7, pp. 717–719, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  40. M. Fujimaki, Y. Ohki, J. L. Brebner, and S. Roorda, “Fabrication of long-period optical fiber gratings by use of ion implantation,” Optics Letters, vol. 25, no. 2, pp. 88–89, 2000. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  41. M. L. von Bibra, A. Roberts, and J. Canning, “Fabrication of long-period fiber gratings by use of focused ion-beam irradiation,” Optics Letters, vol. 26, no. 11, pp. 765–767, 2001. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  42. Y. Kondo, K. Nouchi, T. Mitsuyu, M. Watanabe, P. G. Kazansky, and K. Hirao, “Fabrication of long-period fiber gratings by focused irradiation of infrared femtosecond laser pulses,” Optics Letters, vol. 24, no. 10, pp. 646–648, 1999. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  43. E. Fertein, C. Przygodzki, H. Delbarre, A. Hidayat, M. Douay, and P. Niay, “Refractive-index changes of standard telecommunication fiber through exposure to femtosecond laser pulses at 810 cm,” Applied Optics, vol. 40, no. 21, pp. 3506–3508, 2001. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  44. F. Hindle, E. Fertein, C. Przygodzki et al., “Inscription of long-period gratings in pure silica and germano-silicate fiber cores by femtosecond laser irradiation,” IEEE Photonics Technology Letters, vol. 16, no. 8, pp. 1861–1863, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  45. A. I. Kalachev, V. Pureur, and D. N. Nikogosyan, “Investigation of long-period fiber gratings induced by high-intensity femtosecond UV laser pulses,” Optics Communications, vol. 246, no. 1–3, pp. 107–115, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  46. A. I. Kalachev, D. N. Nikogosyan, and G. Brambilla, “Long-period fiber grating fabrication by high-intensity femtosecond pulses at 211 nm,” Journal of Lightwave Technology, vol. 23, no. 8, pp. 2568–2578, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  47. T. Allsop, M. Dubov, A. Martinez et al., “Bending characteristics of fiber long-period gratings with cladding index modified by femtosecond laser,” Journal of Lightwave Technology, vol. 24, no. 8, pp. 3147–3154, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  48. S. Liu, L. Jin, W. Jin, Y. Wang, and D. N. Wang, “Fabrication of long-period gratings by femtosecond laser-induced filling of air-holes in photonic crystal fibers,” IEEE Photonics Technology Letters, vol. 22, no. 22, pp. 1635–1637, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  49. C. Lião, Y. Wang, D. N. Wang, and L. Jin, “Femtosecond laser inscribed long-period gratings in all-solid photonic bandgap fibers,” IEEE Photonics Technology Letters, vol. 22, no. 6, pp. 425–427, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  50. B. J. O'Regan and D. N. Nikogosyan, “Femtosecond UV long-period fiber grating fabrication with amplitude mask technique,” Optics Communications, vol. 284, no. 24, pp. 5650–5654, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  51. Y. Zhu, P. Shum, H. W. Bay, X. Chen, C. H. Tan, and C. Lu, “Wide-passband, temperature-insensitive, and compact π-phase-shifted long-period gratings in endlessly single-mode photonic crystal fiber,” Optics Letters, vol. 29, no. 22, pp. 2608–2610, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  52. S. Oh, K. R. Lee, U. C. Paek, and Y. Chung, “Fabrication of helical long-period fiber gratings by use of a Co 2 laser,” Optics Letters, vol. 29, no. 13, pp. 1464–1466, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  53. Y. P. Wang, L. Xiao, D. N. Wang, and W. Jin, “Highly sensitive long-period fiber-grating strain sensor with low temperature sensitivity,” Optics Letters, vol. 31, no. 23, pp. 3414–3416, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  54. Y. J. Rao, T. Zhu, and Q. J. Mo, “Highly sensitive fiber-optic torsion sensor based on an ultra-long-period fiber grating,” Optics Communications, vol. 266, no. 1, pp. 187–190, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  55. T. Zhu, Y. J. Rao, and J. L. Wang, “Characteristics of novel ultra-long-period fiber gratings fabricated by high-frequency CO2 laser pulses,” Optics Communications, vol. 277, no. 1, pp. 84–88, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  56. T. Zhu, Y. J. Rao, and J. L. Wang, “Multi-edge-written long-period fibre gratings with low PDL by using high-frequency CO2 Laser Pulses,” Chinese Physics Letters, vol. 24, no. 7, pp. 1971–1972, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  57. Y. E. Fan, T. Zhu, L. L. Shi, and Y. J. Rao, “Fabrication and characteristics of phase-shifted beat gratings induced by CO2 laser,” Microwave and Optical Technology Letters, vol. 53, no. 11, pp. 2526–2530, 2011. View at Google Scholar
  58. Z. Zhang, W. Shi, K. Gao, and Z. Fang, “Twist characteristics of the ultraviolet-written long-period fiber gratings,” Chinese Optics Letters, vol. 2, no. 10, pp. 565–567, 2004. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  59. D. E. Ceballos-Herrera, I. Torres-Gomez, A. Martinez-Rios, L. Garcia, and J. J. Sanchez-Mondragon, “Torsion sensing characteristics of mechanically induced long-period holey fiber gratings,” IEEE Sensors Journal, vol. 10, no. 7, pp. 1200–1205, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  60. Y. P. Wang and Y. J. Rao, “Long period fibre grating torsion sensor measuring twist rate and determining twist direction simultaneously,” Electronics Letters, vol. 40, no. 3, pp. 164–166, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  61. P. Caldas, G. Rego, O. V. Ivanov, and J. L. Santos, “Characterization of the response of a dual resonance of an arc-induced long-period grating to various physical parameters,” Applied Optics, vol. 49, no. 16, pp. 2994–2999, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  62. T. Zhu, Y. J. Rao, J. L. Wang, and Y. Song, “Strain sensor without temperature compensation based on LPFG with strongly rotary refractive index modulation,” Electronics Letters, vol. 43, no. 21, pp. 1132–1134, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  63. M. Jiang, A. P. Zhang, Y. C. Wang, H. Y. Tam, and S. He, “Fabrication of a compact reflective long-period grating sensor with a cladding-mode-selective fiber end-face mirror,” Optics Express, vol. 17, no. 20, pp. 17976–17982, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  64. A. Kapoor and E. K. Sharma, “Long period grating refractive-index sensor: optimal design for single wavelength interrogation,” Applied Optics, vol. 48, no. 31, pp. G88–G94, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  65. L. L. Shi, T. Zhu, Q. Zhang, and Y. J. Rao, “Remote sensing based on reflective bandpass long period fiber grating and fiber ring laser,” in Proceedings of the 22nd International Conference on Optical Fiber Sensors, Beijing, China, October 2012, No. 20128421-211.