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Journal of Sensors
Volume 2016, Article ID 2750862, 14 pages
Research Article

GNSS-R Delay-Doppler Map Simulation Based on the 2004 Sumatra-Andaman Tsunami Event

Faculty of Engineering and Applied Science, Memorial University, St. John’s, NL, Canada A1B 3X5

Received 20 March 2015; Revised 19 June 2015; Accepted 29 June 2015

Academic Editor: Jose C. Nieto-Borge

Copyright © 2016 Qingyun Yan and Weimin Huang. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


A new method for simulating Global Navigation Satellite System-Reflectometry (GNSS-R) delay-Doppler maps (DDMs) of a tsunami-dominant sea surface is presented. In this method, the bistatic scattering Z-V model, the sea surface mean square slope model of Cox and Munk, and the tsunami-induced wind perturbation model are employed. The feasibility of the Cox and Munk model under a tsunami scenario is examined by comparing the Cox and Munk model based scattering coefficient with the Jason-1 measurement. A good consistency between these two results is obtained with a correlation coefficient of 0.93. After confirming the applicability of the Cox and Munk model for a tsunami-dominated sea, this study provides the simulations of the scattering coefficient distribution and the corresponding DDMs of a fixed region of interest before and during the tsunami. In the final analysis, by subtracting the simulation results that are free of tsunami from those with presence of tsunami, the tsunami-induced variations in scattering coefficients and DDMs can be clearly observed. As a result, the tsunami passage can be readily interpreted.