Table of Contents Author Guidelines Submit a Manuscript
Journal of Sensors
Volume 2016, Article ID 3816094, 31 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2016/3816094
Review Article

In2O3- and SnO2-Based Thin Film Ozone Sensors: Fundamentals

1Gwangju Institute of Science and Technology, Gwangju 500-712, Republic of Korea
2State University of Moldova, 2009 Chisinau, Moldova

Received 22 December 2015; Accepted 11 February 2016

Academic Editor: Eduard Llobet

Copyright © 2016 G. Korotcenkov et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. R. G. Rice and A. Netzer, Handbook of Ozone Technology and Applications, Ann Arbor Science, Ann Arbor, Mich, USA, 1984.
  2. P. Siesverda, “A review of ozone applications in public aquaria,” in Proceedings of the 9th Ozone World Congress, pp. 246–295, New York, NY, USA, 1989.
  3. V. Camel and A. Bermond, “The use of ozone and associated oxidation processes in drinking water treatment,” Water Research, vol. 32, no. 11, pp. 3208–3222, 1998. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  4. M. Horvath, L. Bilitzky, and J. Hüttner, Ozone, Elsevier, Amsterdam, The Netherlands, 1985.
  5. G. A. Cook, “Industrial uses of ozone,” Journal of Chemical Education, vol. 59, no. 5, pp. 392–394, 1982. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  6. Applications and uses for ozone, http://o3ozone.com/q&a_informed/ozone_applications.htm.
  7. Ozone applications, Ozone solutions, Inc, http://www.ozonesolutions.com/.
  8. V. Bocci, Ozone: A New Medical Drug, Springer, Dordrecht, The Netherlands, 2005.
  9. C. Gottschak, J. A. Libra, and A. Saupe, Ozonation of Water and Waste Water: A Practical Guide to Understanding Ozone and its Applications, John Wiley & Sons, Weinheim, Germany, 2nd edition, 2010.
  10. C. O'Donnell, B. K. Tiwari, P. J. Cullen, and R. G. Rice, Eds., Ozone in Food Processing, John Wiley & Sons, Chichester, UK, 2012.
  11. M. D. Rowe, K. M. Novak, and P. D. Moskowitz, “Health effects of oxidants,” Environment International, vol. 9, no. 6, pp. 515–528, 1983. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  12. N. Alexis, C. Barnes, I. L. Bernstein et al., “Health effects of air pollution,” Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology, vol. 114, no. 5, pp. 1116–1123, 2004. View at Google Scholar
  13. WHO, Air Quality Guidelines—Global Update 2005, WHO Regional Publications, European Series, World Health Organization, Regional Office for Europe, Copenhagen, Denmark, 2006.
  14. D. Sauter, U. Weimar, G. Noetzel, J. Mitrovics, and W. Göpel, “Development of modular ozone sensor system for application in practical use,” Sensors and Actuators B: Chemical, vol. 69, no. 1, 9 pages, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  15. C. Wang, Metal organic chemical vapor deposition of indium oxide for ozone sensing [Ph.D. thesis], Albert-Ludwigs-Universität Freiburg, Freiburg, Germany, 2009.
  16. G. Korotcenkov and B. K. Cho, “Ozone measuring: what can limit application of SnO2-based conductometric gas sensors?” Sensors and Actuators B: Chemical, vol. 161, no. 1, pp. 28–44, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  17. M. David, M. H. Ibrahim, S. M. Idrus et al., “Progress in ozone sensors performance: a review,” Jurnal Teknologi, vol. 73, no. 6, pp. 23–29, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  18. G. Korotcenkov and V. Sysoev, “Conductometric metal oxide gas sensors,” in Chemical Sensors: Comprehensive Sensor Technologies, G. Korotcenkov, Ed., vol. 4 of Solid State Devices, pp. 39–186, Momentum Press, New York, NY, USA, 2011. View at Google Scholar
  19. G. Korotcenkov, “Metal oxides for solid-state gas sensors: what determines our choice?” Materials Science and Engineering B, vol. 139, no. 1, pp. 1–23, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  20. G. M. Hansford, R. A. Freshwater, R. A. Bosch et al., “A low cost instrument based on a solid state sensor for balloon-borne atmospheric O3 profile sounding,” Journal of Environmental Monitoring, vol. 7, no. 2, pp. 158–162, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  21. F. Röck, N. Barsan, and U. Weimar, “Electronic nose: current status and future trends,” Chemical Reviews, vol. 108, no. 2, pp. 705–725, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  22. G. Korotcenkov and J. R. Stetter, “Chemical gas mixture analysis and the electronic nose: current status, future trends,” in Chemical Sensors: Comprehensive Sensor Technologies, G. Korotcenkov, Ed., vol. 6 of Chemical Sensors Applications, pp. 1–56, Momentum Press, New York, NY, USA, 2011. View at Google Scholar
  23. M. Bart, D. E. Williams, B. Ainslie et al., “High density ozone monitoring using gas sensitive semi-conductor sensors in the lower Fraser valley, British Columbia,” Environmental Science and Technology, vol. 48, no. 7, pp. 3970–3977, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  24. N. Barsan and U. Weimar, “Conduction model of metal oxide gas sensors,” Journal of Electroceramics, vol. 7, no. 3, pp. 143–167, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  25. D. E. Williams, “Conduction and gas response of semiconductor gas sensors,” in Solid State Gas Sensors, P. T. Moseley and B. C. Tofield, Eds., pp. 71–123, Taylor and Francis, Bristol, Pa, USA, 1987. View at Google Scholar
  26. M. J. Madou and S. R. Morrison, Chemical Sensing with Solid State Devices, Academic Press, New York, NY, USA, 1989.
  27. S. R. Morrison, The Chemical Physics of Surfaces, Plenum, New York, NY, USA, 2nd edition, 1990.
  28. V. Brynzari, G. Korotchenkov, and S. Dmitriev, “Theoretical study of semiconductor thin film gas sensitivity: attempt to consistent approach,” Journal of Electronic Technology, vol. 33, pp. 225–235, 2000. View at Google Scholar
  29. N. Bârsan and U. Weimar, “Understanding the fundamental principles of metal oxide based gas sensors; the example of CO sensing with SnO2 sensors in the presence of humidity,” Journal of Physics Condensed Matter, vol. 15, no. 20, pp. R813–R839, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  30. I.-D. Kim, A. Rothschild, and H. L. Tuller, “Advances and new directions in gas-sensing devices,” Acta Materialia, vol. 61, no. 3, pp. 974–1000, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  31. V. Krivetskiy, M. Rumyantseva, and A. Gaskov, “Design, synthesis and application of metal oxide based sensing elements: a chemical principles approach,” in Metal Oxide Nanomaterials for Chemical Sensors, M. A. Carpenter, S. Mathur, and A. Kolmakov, Eds., pp. 69–118, Springer Science, Business Media, New York, NY, USA, 2013. View at Google Scholar
  32. G. Korotcenkov, Handbook of Gas Sensor Materials, vol. 1-2, Springer, New York, NY, USA, 2013.
  33. T. Sahm, A. Gurlo, N. Bârsan, and U. Weimar, “Properties of indium oxide semiconducting sensors deposited by different techniques,” Particulate Science and Technology, vol. 24, no. 4, pp. 441–452, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  34. T. V. Belysheva, G. N. Gerasimov, V. F. Gromov, L. I. Trachtenber, and T. V. Belysheva, “The sensor properties of Fe2O3-In2O3 films: ozone detection in air in the range of low concentration,” Russian Journal of Physical Chemistry A: Focus on Chemistry, vol. 82, no. 10, pp. 1721–1725, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  35. T. K. H. Starke and G. S. V. Coles, “High sensitivity ozone sensors for environmental monitoring produced using laser ablated nanocrystalline metal oxides,” IEEE Sensors Journal, vol. 2, no. 1, pp. 14–19, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  36. M. Ivanovskaya, “Ceramic and film metaloxide sensors obtained by sol-gel method: structural features and gas-sensitive properties,” Electron Technology, vol. 33, no. 1, pp. 108–113, 2000. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  37. G. Korotcenkov, “Gas response control through structural and chemical modification of metal oxide films: state of the art and approaches,” Sensors and Actuators B: Chemical, vol. 107, no. 1, pp. 209–232, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  38. N. Katsarakis, M. Bender, V. Cimalla, and E. Gagaoudakis, “Ozone sensing properties of DC-sputtered, c-axis oriented ZnO films at room temperature,” Sensors and Actuators B: Chemical, vol. 96, no. 1-2, pp. 76–81, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  39. S. R. Utembe, G. M. Hansford, M. G. Sanderson et al., “An ozone monitoring instrument based on the tungsten trioxide (WO3) semiconductor,” Sensors and Actuators B: Chemical, vol. 114, no. 1, pp. 507–512, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  40. A. Labidi, E. Gillet, R. Delamare, M. Maaref, and K. Aguir, “Ethanol and ozone sensing characteristics of WO3 based sensors activated by Au and Pd,” Sensors and Actuators B: Chemical, vol. 120, no. 1, pp. 338–345, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  41. L. A. Obvintseva, “Metal oxide semiconductor sensors for determination of reactive gas impurities in air,” Russian Journal of General Chemistry, vol. 78, no. 12, pp. 2545–2555, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  42. M. Ivanovskaya, A. Gurlo, and P. Bogdanov, “Mechanism of O3 and NO2 detection and selectivity of In2O3 sensors,” Sensors and Actuators, B: Chemical, vol. 77, no. 1-2, pp. 264–267, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  43. G. Korotcenkov, V. Brinzari, A. Cerneavschi et al., “The influence of film structure on In2O3 gas response,” Thin Solid Films, vol. 460, no. 1-2, pp. 315–323, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  44. G. Korotcenkov, A. Cerneavschi, V. Brinzari et al., “In2O3 films deposited by spray pyrolysis as a material for ozone gas sensors,” Sensors and Actuators B: Chemical, vol. 99, no. 2-3, pp. 297–303, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  45. G. Korotcenkov, I. Blinov, M. Ivanov, and J. R. Stetter, “Ozone sensors on the base of SnO2 films deposited by spray pyrolysis,” Sensors and Actuators B: Chemical, vol. 120, no. 2, pp. 679–686, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  46. C. Baratto, M. Ferroni, G. Faglia, and G. Sberveglieri, “Iron-doped indium oxide by modified RGTO deposition for ozone sensing,” Sensors and Actuators B: Chemical, vol. 118, no. 1-2, pp. 221–225, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  47. G. Korotcenkov, V. Macsanov, V. Tolstoy, V. Brinzari, J. Schwank, and G. Fagila, “Structural and gas response characterization of nano-size SnO2 films deposited by SILD method,” Sensors and Actuators B: Chemical, vol. 96, no. 3, pp. 602–609, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  48. O. Korostynska, K. Arshak, G. Hickey, and E. Forde, “Ozone and gamma radiation sensing properties of In2O3:ZnO:SnO2 thin films,” Microsystem Technologies, vol. 14, no. 4-5, pp. 557–566, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  49. J.-B. Sun, J. Xu, B. Wang, P. Sun, F.-M. Liu, and G.-Y. Lu, “UV-enhanced room temperature ozone sensor based on hierarchical SnO2-In2O3,” Chemical Research in Chinese Universities, vol. 28, no. 3, pp. 483–487, 2012. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  50. M. Epifani, E. Comini, J. Arbiol et al., “Chemical synthesis of In2O3 nanocrystals and their application in highly performing ozone-sensing devices,” Sensors and Actuators B: Chemical, vol. 130, no. 1, pp. 483–487, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  51. M. Epifani, S. Capone, R. Rella et al., “In2O3 thin films obtained through a chemical complexation based sol-gel process and their application as gas sensor devices,” Journal of Sol-Gel Science and Technology, vol. 26, no. 1–3, pp. 741–744, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  52. A. Oprea, A. Gurlo, N. Bârsan, and U. Weimar, “Transport and gas sensing properties of In2O3 nanocrystalline thick films: a Hall effect based approach,” Sensors and Actuators B: Chemical, vol. 139, no. 2, pp. 322–328, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  53. G. Korotcenkov, M. Ivanov, I. Blinov, and J. R. Stetter, “Kinetics of indium oxide-based thin film gas sensor response: the role of ‘redox’ and adsorption/desorption processes in gas sensing effects,” Thin Solid Films, vol. 515, no. 7-8, pp. 3987–3996, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  54. G. Korotcenkov, V. Brinzari, J. R. Stetter, I. Blinov, and V. Blaja, “The nature of processes controlling the kinetics of indium oxide-based thin film gas sensor response,” Sensors and Actuators B: Chemical, vol. 128, no. 1, pp. 51–63, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  55. T. Takada, K. Suzuki, and M. Nakane, “Highly sensitive ozone sensor,” Sensors and Actuators B: Chemical, vol. 13, no. 1-3, pp. 404–407, 1993. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  56. G. Korotcenkov, I. Blinov, V. Brinzari, and J. R. Stetter, “Effect of air humidity on gas response of SnO2 thin film ozone sensors,” Sensors and Actuators B: Chemical, vol. 122, no. 2, pp. 519–526, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  57. G. Korotcenkov and B. K. Cho, “Thin film SnO2-based gas sensors: film thickness influence,” Sensors and Actuators B: Chemical, vol. 142, no. 1, pp. 321–330, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  58. L. Berry and J. Brunet, “Oxygen influence on the interaction mechanisms of ozone on SnO2 sensors,” Sensors and Actuators, B: Chemical, vol. 129, no. 1, pp. 450–458, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  59. V. Demarne and A. Grisel, “A new SnO2 low temperature deposition technique for integrated gas sensors,” Sensors and Actuators B: Chemical, vol. 15, no. 1–3, pp. 63–67, 1993. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  60. Th. Becker, L. Tomasi, C. B.-V. Braunmühl et al., “Ozone detection using low-power-consumption metal-oxide gas sensors,” Sensors and Actuators A: Physical, vol. 74, no. 1–3, pp. 229–232, 1999. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  61. W. Hellmich, C. B.-V. Braunmühl, G. Müller, G. Sberveglieri, M. Berti, and C. Perego, “The kinetics of formation of gas-sensitive RGTO-SnO2 films,” Thin Solid Films, vol. 263, no. 2, pp. 231–237, 1995. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  62. G. Korotcenkov, B. K. Cho, L. Gulina, and V. Tolstoy, “Ozone sensors based on SnO2 films modified by SnO2-Au nanocomposites synthesized by the SILD method,” Sensors and Actuators, B: Chemical, vol. 138, no. 2, pp. 512–517, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  63. C. Cantalini, W. Wlodarski, Y. Li et al., “Investigation on the O3 sensitivity properties of WO3 thin films prepared by sol–gel, thermal evaporation and r.f. sputtering techniques,” Sensors and Actuators B: Chemical, vol. 64, no. 1–3, pp. 182–188, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  64. O. Berger, T. Hoffman, W.-J. Fischer, and V. Melev, “Tungsten-oxide thin films as novel materials with high sensitivity and selectivity to NO2, O3, and H2S. Part II: application as gas sensors,” Journal of Materials Science: Materials in Electronics, vol. 15, no. 7, pp. 483–493, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  65. W. Belkacem, A. Labidi, J. Guérin, N. Mliki, and K. Aguir, “Cobalt nanograins effect on the ozone detection by WO3 sensors,” Sensors and Actuators B: Chemical, vol. 132, no. 1, pp. 196–201, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  66. J. Guérin, M. Bendahan, and K. Aguir, “A dynamic response model for the WO3-based ozone sensors,” Sensors and Actuators B: Chemical, vol. 128, no. 2, pp. 462–467, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  67. R. Boulmani, M. Bendahan, C. Lambert-Mauriat, M. Gillet, and K. Aguir, “Correlation between rf-sputtering parameters and WO3 sensor response towards ozone,” Sensors and Actuators B: Chemical, vol. 125, no. 2, pp. 622–627, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  68. A. Labidi, M. Gaidi, J. Guérin, A. Bejaoui, M. Maaref, and K. Aguir, “Alternating current investigation and modeling of the temperature and ozone effects on the grains and the grain boundary contributions to the WO3 sensor responses,” Thin Solid Films, vol. 518, no. 1, pp. 355–361, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  69. A. Labidi, C. Jacolin, M. Bendahan et al., “Impedance spectroscopy on WO3 gas sensor,” Sensors and Actuators B: Chemical, vol. 106, no. 2, pp. 713–718, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  70. J. Guérin, K. Aguir, M. Bendahan, and C. Lambert-Mauriat, “Thermal modelling of a WO3 ozone sensor response,” Sensors and Actuators B: Chemical, vol. 104, no. 2, pp. 289–293, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  71. A. C. Catto, L. F. da Silva, C. Ribeiro et al., “An easy method of preparing ozone gas sensors based on ZnO nanorods,” RSC Advances, vol. 5, no. 25, pp. 19528–19533, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  72. M. Acuautla, S. Bernardini, M. Bendahan, and E. Pietri, “Thickness effects of ZnO thin films on flexible ozone sensors,” in Proceedings of 10th Conference on Research in Microelectronics and Electronics (PRIME '14), pp. 1–4, IEEE, Grenoble, France, June 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  73. K. Galatsis, Y. X. Li, W. Wlodarski et al., “Comparison of single and binary oxide MoO3, TiO2 and WO3 sol-gel gas sensors,” Sensors and Actuators B: Chemical, vol. 83, no. 1–3, pp. 276–280, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  74. M. Debliquy, C. Baroni, A. Boudiba, J.-M. Tulliani, M. Olivier, and C. Zhang, “Sensing characteristics of hematite and barium oxide doped hematite films towards ozone and nitrogen dioxide,” Procedia Engineering, vol. 25, pp. 219–222, 2011. View at Google Scholar
  75. Y. Hosoya, Y. Itagaki, H. Aono, and Y. Sadaoka, “Ozone detection in air using SmFeO3 gas sensor,” Sensors and Actuators B: Chemical, vol. 108, no. 1-2, pp. 198–201, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  76. T. Takada and K. Komatsu, “Ozone detection by In2О3 thin films gas sensor,” in Proceedings of the 4th International Conference on Solid State Sensors and Actuators, pp. 693–696, Tokyo, Japan, June 1987.
  77. T. Takada, “Ozone detection by In2О3 thin films gas sensor,” in Chemical Sensor Technology. Kodansha, T. Seiyama, Ed., vol. 2, pp. 59–70, Elsevier, Tokyo, Japan, 1989. View at Google Scholar
  78. D. F. Cox, T. B. Fryberger, and S. Semancik, “Oxygen vacancies and defect electronic states on the SnO2(110)-1×1 surface,” Physical Review B, vol. 38, pp. 2072–2083, 1988. View at Google Scholar
  79. K. Tabata, T. Kawabe, Y. Yamaguchi, and Y. Nagasawa, “Chemisorbed oxygen species over the (110) face of SnO2,” Catalysis Surveys from Asia, vol. 7, no. 4, pp. 251–259, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  80. P. Agoston, Point defect and surface properties of In2O3 and SnO2: a comparative study by first-principles methods [Ph.D. thesis], Technische Universität Darmstadt, Darmstadt, Germany, 2011.
  81. Th. Becker, S. Ahlers, C. Bosch-v Braunmühl, G. Muller, and O. Kiesewetter, “Gas sensing properties of thin- and thick-film tin-oxide materials,” Sensors and Actuators B: Chemical, vol. 77, no. 1-2, pp. 55–61, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  82. S.-R. Kim, H.-K. Hong, C. H. Kwon, D. H. Yun, K. Lee, and Y. K. Sung, “Ozone sensing properties of In2O3-based semiconductor thick films,” Sensors and Actuators B: Chemical, vol. 66, no. 1, pp. 59–62, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  83. W. Gopel, “Chemisorption and charge transfer at ionic semiconductor surfaces: implications in designing gas sensors,” Progress in Surface Science, vol. 20, no. 1, pp. 9–103, 1985. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  84. M. Egashira, “An overview on semiconductor gas sensors,” in Proceedings of the Symposium on Chemical Sensors and Proceedings of the Electrochemical Society (ECS '87), D. R. Turner, Ed., vol. 87–89, pp. 39–48, Pennington, NJ, USA, 1987.
  85. G. Sberveglieri, Ed., Gas Sensors, Kluwer Academic Publishers, Dordrecht, The Netherlands, 1992.
  86. N. Barsan, M. Schweizer-Berberich, and W. Göpel, “Fundamental and practical aspects in the design of nanoscaled SnO2 gas sensors: a status report,” Fresenius' Journal of Analytical Chemistry, vol. 365, no. 4, pp. 287–304, 1999. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  87. W. Gopel and G. Reinhardt, “Metal oxide sensors: new devices through tailoring interfaces on the atomic scale,” in Sensors Update. Sensor Technology—Applications Markets, H. Baltes, W. Gopel, and J. Hesse, Eds., vol. 1, pp. 49–120, VCH Publishers, Weinheim, Germany, 1996. View at Google Scholar
  88. A. Gurlo, N. Barsan, and U. Weimar, “Gas sensors based on semiconducting metal oxides,” in Metal Oxides: Chemistry and Applications, J. L. G. Fierro, Ed., Marcel Dekker, New York, NY, USA, 2004. View at Google Scholar
  89. E. Comini, G. Faglia, and G. Sberveglieri, Eds., Solid State Gas Sensing, Springer, New York, NY, USA, 2009.
  90. G. Korotcenkov, V. Brinzari, A. Cerneavschi et al., “In2O3 films deposited by spray pyrolysis: gas response to reducing (CO, H2) gases,” Sensors and Actuators B: Chemical, vol. 98, no. 2-3, pp. 122–129, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  91. T. Doll, A. Fuchs, I. Eisele, G. Faglia, S. Groppelli, and G. Sberveglieri, “Conductivity and work function ozone sensors based on indium oxide,” Sensors and Actuators B: Chemical, vol. 49, no. 1-2, pp. 63–67, 1998. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  92. V. R. Mastelaro, S. C. Zílio, L. F. da Silva et al., “Ozone gas sensor based on nanocrystalline SrTi1−xFexO3 thin films,” Sensors and Actuators B: Chemical, vol. 181, pp. 919–924, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  93. A. Bejaoui, J. Guerin, J. A. Zapien, and K. Aguir, “Theoretical and experimental study of the response of CuO gas sensor under ozone,” Sensors and Actuators B: Chemical, vol. 190, pp. 8–15, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  94. L. F. da Silva, A. C. Catto, W. Avansi Jr. et al., “A novel ozone gas sensor based on one-dimensional (1D) α-Ag2WO4 nanostructures,” Nanoscale, vol. 6, no. 8, pp. 4058–4062, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  95. G. Korotcenkov, V. Golovanov, V. Brinzari, A. Cornet, J. Morante, and M. Ivanov, “Distinguishing feature of metal oxide films' structural engineering for gas sensor applications,” Journal of Physics: Conference Series, vol. 15, no. 1, pp. 256–261, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  96. A. Walsh and C. R. A. Catlow, “Structure, stability and work functions of the low index surfaces of pure indium oxide and Sn-doped indium oxide (ITO) from density functional theory,” Journal of Materials Chemistry, vol. 20, no. 46, pp. 10438–10444, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  97. G. Korotcenkov, “The role of morphology and crystallographic structure of metal oxides in response of conductometric-type gas sensors,” Materials Science and Engineering R: Reports, vol. 61, no. 1–6, pp. 1–39, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  98. G. Korotcenkov and B. K. Cho, “The role of grain size on the thermal instability of nanostructured metal oxides used in gas sensor applications and approaches for grain-size stabilization,” Progress in Crystal Growth and Characterization of Materials, vol. 58, no. 4, pp. 167–208, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  99. G. Korotcenkov, A. Cornet, E. Rossinyol, J. Arbiol, V. Brinzari, and Y. Blinov, “Faceting characterization of tin dioxide nanocrystals deposited by spray pyrolysis from stannic chloride water solution,” Thin Solid Films, vol. 471, no. 1-2, pp. 310–319, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  100. G. Korotcenkov, M. Dibattista, J. Schwank, and V. Brinzari, “Structural characterization of SnO2 gas sensing films deposited by spray pyrolysis,” Materials Science and Engineering B, vol. 77, no. 1, pp. 33–39, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  101. G. Korotcenkov, A. Cerneavschi, V. Brinzari et al., “Crystallographic characterization of In2O3 films deposited by spray pyrolysis,” Sensors and Actuators B: Chemical, vol. 84, no. 1, pp. 37–42, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  102. G. Korotcenkov, V. Brinzari, M. Ivanov et al., “Structural stability of indium oxide films deposited by spray pyrolysis during thermal annealing,” Thin Solid Films, vol. 479, no. 1-2, pp. 38–51, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  103. P. Agoston and K. Albe, “Thermodynamic stability, stoichiometry, and electronic structure of bcc-In2O3 surfaces,” Physical Review B, vol. 84, no. 4, Article ID 045311, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  104. K. H. L. Zhang, A. Walsh, C. R. A. Catlow, V. K. Lazarov, and R. G. Egdell, “Surface energies control the self-organization of oriented In2O3 nanostructures on cubic zirconia,” Nano Letters, vol. 10, no. 9, pp. 3740–3746, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  105. M. Batzill and U. Diebold, “The surface and materials science of tin oxide,” Progress in Surface Science, vol. 79, no. 2–4, pp. 47–154, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  106. C. Xu, J. Tamaki, N. Miura, and N. Yamazoe, “Grain size effects on gas sensitivity of porous SnO2-based elements,” Sensors and Actuators B: Chemical, vol. 3, no. 2, pp. 147–155, 1991. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  107. X. Wang, S. S. Yee, and W. P. Carey, “Transition between neck controlled and grain-boundary-controlled sensitivity of metal oxide gas sensors,” Sensors and Actuators B: Chemical, vol. 25, no. 1–3, pp. 454–457, 1995. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  108. A. Rothschild and Y. Komem, “The effect of grain size on the sensitivity of nanocrystalline metal-oxide gas sensors,” Journal of Applied Physics, vol. 95, no. 11, pp. 6374–6380, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  109. G. Korotcenkov, S. D. Han, B. K. Cho, and V. Brinzari, “Grain size effects in sensor response of nanostructured SnO2- and In2O3-based conductometric gas sensor,” Critical Reviews in Solid State and Materials Sciences, vol. 34, no. 1-2, pp. 1–17, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  110. Y. Hao, G. Meng, C. Ye, and L. Zhang, “Controlled synthesis of In2O3 octahedrons and nanowires,” Crystal Growth and Design, vol. 5, no. 4, pp. 1617–1621, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  111. M. Shi, F. Xu, K. Yu, Z. Zhu, and J. Fang, “Controllable synthesis of In2O3 nanocubes, truncated nanocubes, and symmetric multipods,” Journal of Physical Chemistry C, vol. 111, no. 44, pp. 16267–16271, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  112. A. Gurlo, “Nanosensors: towards morphological control of gas sensing activity. SnO2, In2O3, ZnO and WO3 case studies,” Nanoscale, vol. 3, no. 1, pp. 154–165, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  113. G. Korotcenkov, S. H. Han, and B. K. Cho, “Material design for metal oxide chemiresistive gas sensors,” Journal of Sensor Science and Technology, vol. 22, no. 1, pp. 1–17, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  114. V. Brinzari, G. Korotcenkov, J. Schwank, V. Lantto, S. Saukko, and V. Golovanov, “Morphological rank of nano-scale tin dioxide films deposited by spray pyrolysis from SnCl45H2O water solution,” Thin Solid Films, vol. 408, no. 1-2, pp. 51–58, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  115. G. Korotcenkov, I. Boris, A. Cornet et al., “The influence of additives on gas sensing and structural properties of In2O3-based ceramics,” Sensors and Actuators B: Chemical, vol. 120, no. 2, pp. 657–664, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  116. G. Korotcenkov, V. Brinzari, V. Golovanov, and Y. Blinov, “Kinetics of gas response to reducing gases of SnO2 films, deposited by spray pyrolysis,” Sensors and Actuators B: Chemical, vol. 98, no. 1, pp. 41–45, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  117. I. Lundström, “Approaches and mechanisms to solid state based sensing,” Sensors and Actuators B: Chemical, vol. 35, no. 1–3, pp. 11–19, 1996. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  118. A. Gurlo, N. Barsan, U. Weimar, M. Ivanovskaya, A. Taurino, and P. Siciliano, “Polycrystalline well-shaped blocks of indium oxide obtained by the sol-gel method and their gas-sensing properties,” Chemistry of Materials, vol. 15, no. 23, pp. 4377–4383, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  119. T. Wagner, J. Hennemann, C.-D. Kohl, and M. Tiemann, “Photocatalytic ozone sensor based on mesoporous indium oxide: influence of the relative humidity on the sensing performance,” Thin Solid Films, vol. 520, no. 3, pp. 918–921, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  120. T. Takada, H. Tanjou, T. Saito, and K. Harada, “Aqueous ozone detector using In2O3 thin-film semiconductor gas sensor,” Sensors and Actuators B: Chemical, vol. 24-25, no. 1–3, pp. 548–551, 1995. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  121. C. Y. Wang, S. Bagchi, M. Bitterling et al., “Photon stimulated ozone sensor based on indium oxide nanoparticles II: ozone monitoring in humidity and water environments,” Sensors and Actuators B: Chemical, vol. 164, no. 1, pp. 37–42, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  122. A. Hattori, H. Tachibana, N. Yoshiike, and A. Yoshida, “Ozone sensor made by dip coating method,” Sensors and Actuators A: Physical, vol. 77, no. 2, pp. 120–125, 1999. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  123. A. Gurlo, N. Barsan, M. Ivanovskaya, U. Weimar, and W. Gopel, “In2O3 and MoO3–In2O3 thin film semiconductor sensors: interaction with NO2 and O3,” Sensors and Actuators B: Chemical, vol. 47, no. 1, pp. 92–99, 1998. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  124. J. Frank, M. Fleischer, M. Zimmer, and H. Meixner, “Ozone sensing using In2O3-modified Ga2O3 thin films,” IEEE Sensors Journal, vol. 1, no. 4, pp. 318–321, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  125. P. K. Clifford and D. T. Tuma, “Characteristics of semiconductor gas sensors I. Steady state gas response,” Sensors and Actuators, vol. 3, pp. 233–254, 1982. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  126. S. Strässler and A. Reis, “Simple models for N-type metal oxide gas sensors,” Sensors and Actuators, vol. 4, pp. 465–472, 1983. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  127. S. R. Morrison, “Mechanism of semiconductor gas sensor operation,” Sensors and Actuators, vol. 11, no. 3, pp. 283–287, 1987. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  128. J. F. McAleer, P. T. Moseley, J. O. W. Norris, and D. E. Williams, “Tin dioxide gas sensors. Part 1.—aspects of the surface chemistry revealed by electrical conductance variations,” Journal of the Chemical Society, Faraday Transactions 1: Physical Chemistry in Condensed Phases, vol. 83, no. 4, pp. 1323–1346, 1987. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  129. D. E. Williams and K. F. E. Pratt, “Microstructure effects on the response of gas-sensitive resistors based on semiconducting oxides,” Sensors and Actuators B: Chemical, vol. 70, no. 1–3, pp. 214–221, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  130. G. Chabanis, I. P. Parkin, and D. E. Williams, “A simple equivalent circuit model to represent microstructure effects on the response of semiconducting oxide-based gas sensors,” Measurement Science and Technology, vol. 14, no. 1, pp. 76–86, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  131. V. Brinzari, M. Ivanov, B. K. Cho, M. Kamei, and G. Korotcenkov, “Photoconductivity in In2O3 nanoscale thin films: interrelation with chemisorbed-type conductometric response towards oxygen,” Sensors and Actuators B: Chemical, vol. 148, no. 2, pp. 427–438, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  132. G. Munuera, V. Rives-Arnau, and A. Saucedo, “Photo-adsorption and photo-desorption of oxygen on highly hydroxylated TiO2 surfaces. Part 1.—role of hydroxyl groups in photo-adsorption,” Journal of the Chemical Society, Faraday Transactions 1, vol. 75, pp. 736–747, 1979. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  133. D. E. Williams, S. R. Aliwell, K. F. E. Pratt et al., “Modelling the response of a tungsten oxide semiconductor as a gas sensor for the measurement of ozone,” Measurement Science and Technology, vol. 13, no. 6, pp. 923–931, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  134. J. Guérin, K. Aguir, and M. Bendahan, “Modeling of the conduction in a WO3 thin film as ozone sensor,” Sensors and Actuators B: Chemical, vol. 119, no. 1, pp. 327–334, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  135. V. V. Lunin, M. P. Popovich, and S. N. Tkachenko, Physical Chemistry of Ozone, Moscow State University, Moscow, Russia, 1998 (Russian).
  136. K. M. Bulanin, J. C. Lavalley, and A. A. Tsyganenko, “Infrared study of ozone adsorption on TiO2 (anatase),” Journal of Physical Chemistry, vol. 99, no. 25, pp. 10294–10298, 1995. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  137. B. Dhandapani and S. T. Oyama, “Gas phase ozone decomposition catalysts,” Applied Catalysis B: Environmental, vol. 11, no. 2, pp. 129–166, 1997. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  138. A. Banichevich, S. D. Peyerimhoff, and F. Grein, “Ab initio potential surfaces for ozone dissociation in its ground and various electronically excited states,” Chemical Physics Letters, vol. 173, no. 1, pp. 1–6, 1990. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  139. M. Allan, K. R. Asmis, D. B. Popovic, M. Stepanovic, N. J. Mason, and J. A. Davies, “Production of vibrationally autodetaching O2- in low-energy electron impact on ozone,” Journal of Physics B: Atomic, Molecular and Optical Physics, vol. 29, no. 15, pp. 3487–3495, 1996. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  140. A. Naydenov, R. Stoyanova, and D. Mehandjiev, “Ozone decomposition and CO oxidation on CeO2,” Journal of Molecular Catalysis A: Chemical, vol. 98, no. 1, pp. 9–14, 1995. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  141. T. Doll, J. Lechner, I. Eisele, K.-D. Schierbaum, and W. Göpel, “Ozone detection in the ppb range with work function sensors operating at room temperature,” Sensors and Actuators B: Chemical, vol. 34, no. 1–3, pp. 506–510, 1996. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  142. D. E. Williams and K. F. E. Patt, “Classification of reactive sites on the surface of polycrystalline tin dioxide,” Journal of the Chemical Society, Faraday Transactions, vol. 94, no. 23, pp. 3493–3500, 1998. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  143. M. Calatayud, A. Markovits, M. Menetrey, B. Mguig, and C. Minot, “Adsorption on perfect and reduced surfaces of metal oxides,” Catalysis Today, vol. 85, no. 2–4, pp. 125–143, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  144. F. Trani, M. Causà, D. Ninno, G. Cantele, and V. Barone, “Density functional study of oxygen vacancies at the SnO2 surface and subsurface sites,” Physical Review B, vol. 77, no. 24, Article ID 245410, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  145. A. Rothschild, Y. Komem, and F. Cosandey, “Low temperature reoxidation mechanism in nanocrystalline TiO2-δ thin films thin films,” Journal of the Electrochemical Society, vol. 148, no. 8, pp. H85–H89, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  146. J. Jamnik, B. Kamp, R. Merkle, and J. Maier, “Space charge influenced oxygen incorporation in oxides: in how far does it contribute to the drift of Taguchi sensors?” Solid State Ionics, vol. 150, no. 1-2, pp. 157–166, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  147. J. Fleig, R. Merkle, and J. Maier, “The p(O2) dependence of oxygen surface coverage and exchange current density of mixed conducting oxide electrodes: model considerations,” Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics, vol. 9, no. 21, pp. 2713–2723, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  148. S. B. Adler, X. Y. Chen, and J. R. Wilson, “Mechanisms and rate laws for oxygen exchange on mixed-conducting oxide surfaces,” Journal of Catalysis, vol. 245, no. 1, pp. 91–109, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  149. R. Merkle and J. Maier, “How is oxygen incorporated into oxides? A comprehensive kinetic study of a simple solid-state reaction with SrTiO3 as a model material,” Angewandte Chemie—International Edition, vol. 47, no. 21, pp. 3874–3894, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  150. C. Körber, A. Wachau, P. Ágoston, K. Albe, and A. Klein, “Self-limited oxygen exchange kinetics at SnO2 surfaces,” Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics, vol. 13, no. 8, pp. 3223–3226, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  151. M. Himmerlich, Surface characterization of indium compounds as functional layers for (opto)electronic and sensoric applications [Ph.D. thesis], Technische Universität Ilmenau, Ilmenau, Germany, 2008.
  152. P. G. Harrison and M. J. Willett, “Tin oxide surfaces. Part 20.—electrical properties of tin(IV) oxide gel: nature of the surface species controlling the electrical conductance in air as a function of temperature,” Journal of the Chemical Society, Faraday Transactions 1: Physical Chemistry in Condensed Phases, vol. 85, no. 8, pp. 1921–1932, 1989. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  153. M. Vahedpour, M. Tozihi, and F. Nazari, “Mechanistic study of ozone-water reaction and their reaction products with gas phase elemental mercury: a computational study,” Chinese Journal of Chemistry, vol. 28, no. 7, pp. 1103–1113, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  154. V. Brinzari, G. Korotcenkov, K. Veltruska, V. Matolin, N. Tsud, and J. Schwank, “XPS study of gas sensitive SnO2 thin films,” in Proceedings of the Semiconductor International Conference (CAS '00), vol. 1, pp. 127–130, Sinaia , Romania, October 2000.
  155. V. M. Bermudez, A. D. Berry, H. Kim, and A. Piqué, “Functionalization of indium tin oxide,” Langmuir, vol. 22, no. 26, pp. 11113–11125, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  156. K. Ip, B. P. Gila, A. H. Onstine et al., “Effect of ozone cleaning on Pt/Au and W/Pt/Au Schottky contacts to n-type ZnO,” Applied Surface Science, vol. 236, no. 1, pp. 387–393, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  157. M. Tominaga, N. Hirata, and I. Taniguchi, “UV-ozone dry-cleaning process for indium oxide electrodes for protein electrochemistry,” Electrochemistry Communications, vol. 7, no. 12, pp. 1423–1428, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  158. M. Himmerlich, C. Y. Wang, V. Cimalla, O. Ambacher, and S. Krischok, “Surface properties of stoichiometric and defect-rich indium oxide films grown by MOCVD,” Journal of Applied Physics, vol. 111, no. 9, Article ID 093704, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  159. F. Wolkenstein, The Electron Theory of Catalysis on Semiconductors, Macmillan Publishers, New York, NY, USA, 1963.
  160. T. Wolkenstein, Electronic Processes on Semiconductor Surfaces During Chemisorption, Springer, New York, NY, USA, 1991. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  161. M. Ó Conaire, H. J. Curran, J. M. Simmie, W. J. Pitz, and C. K. Westbrook, “A comprehensive modeling study of hydrogen oxidation,” International Journal of Chemical Kinetics, vol. 36, no. 11, pp. 603–622, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  162. A. K. Gatin, M. V. Grishin, A. A. Kirsankin, L. I. Trakhtenberg, and B. R. Shub, “Adsorption of oxygen and hydrogen at the surface of nanostructured SnO2 film,” Nanotechnologies in Russia, vol. 7, no. 3-4, pp. 122–126, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  163. C. Y. Wang, R. W. Becker, T. Passow et al., “Photon stimulated sensor based on indium oxide nanoparticles I: wide-concentration-range ozone monitoring in air,” Sensors and Actuators B: Chemical, vol. 152, no. 2, pp. 235–240, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  164. E. Gagaoudakis, M. Bender, E. Douloufakis et al., “The influence of deposition parameters on room temperature ozone sensing properties of InOx films,” Sensors and Actuators B: Chemical, vol. 80, no. 2, pp. 155–161, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  165. M. Epifani, E. Comini, J. Arbiol et al., “Nanocrystals as very active interfaces: ultrasensitive room-temperature ozone sensors with in2o3 nanocrystals prepared by a low-temperature sol-gel process in a coordinating environment,” Journal of Physical Chemistry C, vol. 111, no. 37, pp. 13967–13971, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  166. A. Gaddari, F. Berger, M. Amjoud et al., “A novel way for the synthesis of tin dioxide sol–gel derived thin films: application to O3 detection at ambient temperature,” Sensors and Actuators B: Chemical, vol. 176, pp. 811–817, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  167. F. Berger, B. Ghaddab, J. B. Sanchez, and C. Mavon, “Development of an ozone high sensitive sensor working at ambient temperature,” Journal of Physics: Conference Series, vol. 307, no. 1, Article ID 012054, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  168. G. Kiriakidis, K. Moschovis, I. Kortidis, and R. Skarvelakis, “Highly sensitive InOx ozone sensing films on flexible substrates,” Journal of Sensors, vol. 2009, Article ID 727893, 5 pages, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  169. Ch. Y. Wang, V. Cimalla, C.-C. Roehlig et al., “A new type of highly sensitive portable ozone sensor operating at room temperature,” in Proceedings of the 5th IEEE Conference on Sensors, pp. 81–84, EXCO, Daegu, South Korea, October 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  170. G. Kiriakidis, M. Bender, N. Katsarakis et al., “Ozone sensing properties of polycrystalline indium oxide films at room temperature,” Physica Status Solidi (A), vol. 185, no. 1, pp. 27–32, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  171. M. Suchea, N. Katsarakis, S. Christoulakis, S. Nikolopoulou, and G. Kiriakidis, “Low temperature indium oxide gas sensors,” Sensors and Actuators B: Chemical, vol. 118, no. 1-2, pp. 135–141, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  172. J. D. Prades, R. Jimenez-Diaz, M. Manzanares et al., “A model for the response towards oxidizing gases of photoactivated sensors based on individual SnO2 nanowires,” Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics, vol. 11, no. 46, pp. 10881–10889, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  173. M. Bender, N. Katsarakis, E. Gagaoudakis et al., “Dependence of the photoreduction and oxidation behavior of indium oxide films on substrate temperature and film thickness,” Journal of Applied Physics, vol. 90, no. 10, pp. 5382–5387, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  174. M. Suchea, N. Katsarakis, S. Christoulakis, M. Katharakis, T. Kitsopoulos, and G. Kiriakidis, “Metal oxide thin films as sensing layers for ozone detection,” Analytica Chimica Acta, vol. 573-574, pp. 9–13, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  175. D. Klaus, D. Klawinski, S. Amrehn, M. Tiemann, and T. Wagner, “Light-activated resistive ozone sensing at room temperature utilizing nanoporous In2O3 particles: influence of particle size,” Sensors and Actuators B: Chemical, vol. 217, pp. 181–185, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  176. Ch. Y. Wang, V. Cimalla, Th. Kups et al., “Photoreduction and oxidation behavior of In2O3 nanoparticles by metal organic chemical vapor deposition,” Journal of Applied Physics, vol. 102, no. 4, Article ID 044310, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  177. C. Y. Wang, V. Cimalla, M. Kunzer et al., “Near-UV LEDs for integrated InO-based ozone sensors,” Physica Status Solidi (C), vol. 7, no. 7-8, pp. 2177–2179, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  178. C.-C. Jeng, P. J. H. Chong, C.-C. Chiu et al., “A dynamic equilibrium method for the SnO2-based ozone sensors using UV-LED continuous irradiation,” Sensors and Actuators B: Chemical, vol. 195, pp. 702–706, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  179. S. Mills, M. Lim, B. Lee, and V. Misra, “Atomic layer deposition of SnO2 for selective room temperature low ppb level O3 sensing,” ECS Journal of Solid State Science and Technology, vol. 4, no. 10, pp. S3059–S3061, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  180. R.-J. Wu, C.-Y. Chen, M.-H. Chen, and Y.-L. Sun, “Photoreduction measurement of ozone using Pt/TiO2–SnO2 material at room temperature,” Sensors and Actuators B: Chemical, vol. 123, no. 2, pp. 1077–1082, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  181. M. Bender, E. Gagaoudakis, E. Douloufakis et al., “Production and characterization of zinc oxide thin films for room temperature ozone sensing,” Thin Solid Films, vol. 418, no. 1, pp. 45–50, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  182. F. S.-S. Chien, C.-R. Wang, Y.-L. Chan, H.-L. Lin, M.-H. Chen, and R.-J. Wu, “Fast-response ozone sensor with ZnO nanorods grown by chemical vapor deposition,” Sensors and Actuators B: Chemical, vol. 144, no. 1, pp. 120–125, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  183. M. C. Carotta, A. Cervi, A. Fioravanti et al., “A novel ozone detection at room temperature through UV-LED-assisted ZnO thick film sensors,” Thin Solid Films, vol. 520, no. 3, pp. 939–946, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  184. K. L. Chen, G. J. Jiang, K. W. Chang, J. H. Chen, and C. H. Wu, “Gas sensing properties of indium–gallium–zinc–oxide gas sensors in different light intensity,” Analytical Chemistry Research, vol. 4, pp. 8–12, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  185. M.-H. Chen, C.-S. Lu, and R.-J. Wu, “Novel Pt/TiO2–WO3 materials irradiated by visible light used in a photoreductive ozone sensor,” Journal of the Taiwan Institute of Chemical Engineers, vol. 45, no. 3, pp. 1043–1048, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  186. M. Augustin, M. Sommer, and V. V. Sysoev, “UV–VIS sensor system based on SnO2 nanowires,” Sensors and Actuators A: Physical, vol. 210, pp. 205–208, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  187. H. Chen, C. O. Stanier, M. A. Young, and V. H. Grassian, “A kinetic study of ozone decomposition on illuminated oxide surfaces,” Journal of Physical Chemistry A, vol. 115, no. 43, pp. 11979–11987, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  188. P. Kofstad, Non-Stoichiometry, Diffusion and Electrical Conductivity in Binary Metal Oxides, Wiley, New York, NY, USA, 1972.
  189. M. Cǎldǎraru, D. Sprînceana, V. T. Popa, and N. I. Ionescu, “Surface dynamics in tin dioxide-containing catalysts II. Competition between water and oxygen adsorption on polycrystalline tin dioxide,” Sensors and Actuators B: Chemical, vol. 30, no. 1, pp. 35–41, 1996. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  190. G. Korotcenkov, V. Brinzari, Y. Boris, M. Ivanov, J. Schwank, and J. Morante, “Influence of surface Pd doping on gas sensing characteristics of SnO2 thin films deposited by spray pirolysis,” Thin Solid Films, vol. 436, no. 1, pp. 119–126, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  191. D. Koziej, N. Bârsan, U. Weimar, J. Szuber, K. Shimanoe, and N. Yamazoe, “Water–oxygen interplay on tin dioxide surface: implication on gas sensing,” Chemical Physics Letters, vol. 410, no. 4–6, pp. 321–323, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  192. G. Korotchenkov, V. Brynzari, and S. Dmitriev, “Electrical behavior of SnO2 thin films in humid atmosphere,” Sensors and Actuators B: Chemical, vol. 54, no. 3, pp. 197–201, 1999. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  193. V. E. Henrich and P. A. Cox, The Surface Science of Metal Oxides, Cambridge University Press, New York, NY, USA, 1994.
  194. A. R. Gonzalez-Elipe, G. Munuera, and J. Soria, “Photo-adsorption and photo-desorption of oxygen on highly hydroxylated TiO2 surfaces. Part 2.—study of radical intermediates by electron paramagnetic resonance,” Journal of the Chemical Society, Faraday Transactions 1: Physical Chemistry in Condensed Phases, vol. 75, pp. 748–761, 1979. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  195. C. Sivadinarayana, T. V. Choudhary, L. L. Daemen, J. Eckert, and D. W. Goodman, “The nature of the surface species formed on Au/TiO2 during the reaction of H2 and O2: an inelastic neutron scattering study,” Journal of the American Chemical Society, vol. 126, no. 1, pp. 38–39, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  196. M. Addamo, V. Augugliaro, E. García-López, V. Loddo, G. Marcì, and L. Palmisano, “Oxidation of oxalate ion in aqueous suspensions of TiO2 by photocatalysis and ozonation,” Catalysis Today, vol. 107-108, pp. 612–618, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  197. M. Egashira, M. Nakashima, S. Kawasumi, and T. Selyama, “Temperature programmed desorption study of water adsorbed on metal oxides. 2. Tin oxide surface,” The Journal of Physical Chemistry, vol. 85, pp. 4125–4130, 1981. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  198. V. A. Gercher and D. F. Cox, “Water adsorption on stoichiometric and defective SnO2(110) surfaces,” Surface Science, vol. 322, no. 1–3, pp. 177–184, 1995. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  199. E. Leblanc, L. Perier-Camby, G. Thomas, R. Gibert, M. Primet, and P. Gelin, “NOx adsorption onto dehydroxylated or hydroxylated tin dioxide surface. Application to SnO2-based sensors,” Sensors and Actuators B: Chemical, vol. 62, no. 1, pp. 67–72, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  200. M. Z. Atashbar, B. Gong, H. T. Sun, W. Wlodarski, and R. Lamb, “Investigation on ozone-sensitive In2O3 thin films,” Thin Solid Films, vol. 354, no. 1, pp. 222–226, 1999. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  201. J. W. Gardner, “A non-linear diffusion-reaction model of electrical conduction in semiconductor gas sensors,” Sensors and Actuators B: Chemical, vol. 1, no. 1–6, pp. 166–170, 1990. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  202. D. E. Williams, G. S. Henshaw, K. F. E. Pratt, and R. Peat, “Reaction-diffusion effects and systematic design of gas-sensitive resistors based on semiconducting oxides,” Journal of the Chemical Society, Faraday Transactions, vol. 91, no. 23, pp. 4299–4307, 1995. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  203. D. E. Williams and K. F. E. Pratt, “Theory of self-diagnostic sensor array devices using gas-sensitive resistors,” Journal of the Chemical Society, Faraday Transactions, vol. 91, no. 13, pp. 1961–1966, 1995. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  204. H. Lu, W. Ma, J. Gao, and J. Li, “Diffusion-reaction theory for conductance response in metal oxide gas sensing thin films,” Sensors and Actuators B: Chemical, vol. 66, no. 1, pp. 228–231, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  205. X. Vilanova, E. Llobet, R. Alcubilla, J. E. Sueiras, and X. Correig, “Analysis of the conductance transient in thick-film tin oxide gas sensors,” Sensors and Actuators B: Chemical, vol. 31, no. 3, pp. 175–180, 1996. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  206. G. Sakai, N. Matsunaga, K. Shimanoe, and N. Yamazoe, “Theory of gas-diffusion controlled sensitivity for thin film semiconductor gas sensor,” Sensors and Actuators B: Chemical, vol. 80, no. 2, pp. 125–131, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  207. S. Nakata, K. Takemura, and K. Neya, “Non-linear dynamic responses of a semiconductor gas sensor: evaluation of kinetic parameters and competition effect on the sensor response,” Sensors and Actuators B: Chemical, vol. 76, no. 1–3, pp. 436–441, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  208. E. Llobet, X. Vilanova, J. Brezmes, J. E. Sueiras, R. Alcubilla, and X. Correig, “Steady-state and transient behavior of thick-film tin oxide sensors in the presence of gas mixtures,” Journal of the Electrochemical Society, vol. 145, no. 5, pp. 1772–1779, 1998. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  209. W. Zhixiang, M. Fenzhu, S. Yiqiang, Z. Ming, and Y. Guocong, “A method for the measurement of gas concentration distribution in the adsorptive bed,” Chemical Engineering Science, vol. 54, no. 23, pp. 5755–5760, 1999. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  210. Y. Shimizu, T. Maekawa, Y. Nakamura, and M. Egashira, “Effects of gas diffusivity and reactivity on sensing properties of thick film SnO2-based sensors,” Sensors and Actuators B: Chemical, vol. 46, no. 3, pp. 163–168, 1998. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  211. G. Korotchenkov, V. Brynzari, and S. Dmitriev, “Kinetics characteristics of SnO2 thin film gas sensors for environmental monitoring,” in Chemical Microsensors and Applications, S. Buettgenbach, Ed., vol. 3539 of Proceedings of SPIE, pp. 196–204, December 1998.
  212. V. Brynzari, G. Korotchenkov, and S. Dmitriev, “Simulation of thin film gas sensors kinetics,” Sensors and Actuators B: Chemical, vol. 61, no. 1, pp. 143–153, 1999. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  213. A. Šetkus, “Heterogeneous reaction rate based description of the response kinetics in metal oxide gas sensors,” Sensors and Actuators B: Chemical, vol. 87, no. 2, pp. 346–357, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  214. V. P. Zhdanov, “Impact of surface science on the understanding of kinetics of heterogeneous catalytic reactions,” Surface Science, vol. 500, pp. 965–984, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  215. H. J. Kreuzer, “Theory of surface processes,” Applied Physics A, vol. 51, no. 6, pp. 491–497, 1990. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  216. C. Xu and B. E. Koel, “Adsorption kinetics on chemically modified or bimetallic surfaces,” The Journal of Chemical Physics, vol. 100, no. 1, pp. 664–670, 1994. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  217. U. Brossmann, U. Södervall, R. Würschum, and H. Schaefer, “18O Diffusion in nano crystalline ZrO2,” Nanostructured Materials, vol. 12, no. 5–8, pp. 871–874, 1999. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  218. Y. Ikuma and T. Murakami, “Oxygen tracer diffusion in polycrystalline In2O3,” Journal of the Electrochemical Society, vol. 143, no. 8, pp. 2698–2702, 1996. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  219. H. Yamaura, T. Jinkawa, J. Tamaki, K. Moriya, N. Miura, and N. Yamazoe, “Indium oxide-based gas sensor for selective detection of CO,” Sensors and Actuators B: Chemical, vol. 36, no. 1–3, pp. 325–332, 1996. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  220. M. Haneda, Y. Kintaichi, N. Bion, and H. Hamada, “Mechanistic study of the effect of coexisting H2O on the selective reduction of NO with propene over sol-gel prepared In2O3-Al2O3 catalyst,” Applied Catalysis B: Environmental, vol. 42, no. 1, pp. 57–68, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  221. J. Berger, I. Riess, and D. S. Tannhauser, “Dynamic measurement of oxygen diffusion in indium-tin oxide,” Solid State Ionics, vol. 15, no. 3, pp. 225–231, 1985. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  222. C. N. Satterfield, Mass Transfer in Heterogeneous Catalysis, MIT Press, Cambridge, Mass, USA, 1970.
  223. N. Matsunaga, G. Sakai, K. Shimanoe, and N. Yamazoe, “Formulation of gas diffusion dynamics for thin film semiconductor gas sensor based on simple reaction–diffusion equation,” Sensors and Actuators B: Chemical, vol. 96, no. 1-2, pp. 226–233, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  224. J. R. Stetter, “A surface chemical view of gas detection,” Journal of Colloid And Interface Science, vol. 65, no. 3, pp. 432–443, 1978. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus