Table of Contents Author Guidelines Submit a Manuscript
Journal of Sensors
Volume 2016, Article ID 5451821, 10 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2016/5451821
Research Article

Simulation of an Electromagnetic Acoustic Transducer Array by Using Analytical Method and FDTD

1School of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, University of Manchester, Manchester M60 1QD, UK
2College of Mechanical Engineering and Applied Electronics Technology, Beijing University of Technology, Beijing 100124, China

Received 4 June 2015; Accepted 9 November 2015

Academic Editor: Gyuhae Park

Copyright © 2016 Yuedong Xie et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. M. Cacciola, F. C. Morabito, D. Polimeni, and M. Versaci, “Fuzzy characterization of flawed metallic plates with eddy current tests,” Progress in Electromagnetics Research, vol. 72, pp. 241–252, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  2. D. Lovejoy, Magnetic Particle Inspection: A Practical Guide, Springer, Dordrecht, The Netherlands, 1993. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  3. M. Mahmoudi and S. Y. Tan, “Depth detection of conducting marine mines via eddy-current and current-channeling response,” Progress in Electromagnetics Research, vol. 90, pp. 287–307, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  4. M. H. Park, I. S. Kim, and Y. K. Yoon, “Ultrasonic inspection of long steel pipes using Lamb waves,” NDT & E International, vol. 29, no. 1, pp. 13–20, 1996. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  5. W. Yin and A. J. Peyton, “Thickness measurement of non-magnetic plates using multi-frequency eddy current sensors,” NDT & E International, vol. 40, no. 1, pp. 43–48, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  6. W. Yin and A. J. Peyton, “Thickness measurement of metallic plates with an electromagnetic sensor using phase signature analysis,” IEEE Transactions on Instrumentation and Measurement, vol. 57, no. 8, pp. 1803–1807, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  7. Q. Zhao, J. N. Hao, and W. L. Yin, “A simulation study of flaw detection for rail sections based on high frequency magnetic induction sensing using the boundary element method,” Progress in Electromagnetics Research, vol. 141, pp. 309–325, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  8. P. Cawley, “Ultrasonic measurements for the quantitative NDE of adhesive joints-potential and challenges,” in Proceedings of the IEEE Ultrasonics Symposium, pp. 767–772, Tucson, Ariz, USA, October 1992. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  9. B. Chassignole, D. Villard, M. Dubuget, J.-C. Baboux, and R. El Guerjouma, “Characterization of austenitic stainless steel welds for ultrasonic NDT,” Review of Progress in Quantitative Nondestructive Evaluation, vol. 19, pp. 1325–1332, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  10. B. Drinkwater and P. Cawley, “Measurement of the frequency dependence of the ultrasonic reflection coefficient from thin interface layers and partially contacting interfaces,” Ultrasonics, vol. 35, no. 7, pp. 479–488, 1997. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  11. B. W. Drinkwater and P. D. Wilcox, “Ultrasonic arrays for non-destructive evaluation: a review,” NDT & E International, vol. 39, no. 7, pp. 525–541, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  12. J. A. Gallego-Juarez, “Piezoelectric ceramics and ultrasonic transducers,” Journal of Physics E: Scientific Instruments, vol. 22, no. 10, pp. 804–816, 1989. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  13. H. Jaffe and D. Berlincourt, “Piezoelectric transducer materials,” Proceedings of the IEEE, vol. 53, no. 10, pp. 1372–1386, 1965. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  14. B. Jaffe, Piezoelectric Ceramics, vol. 3, Elsevier, New York, NY, USA, 2012.
  15. D. Caratelli, A. Lay-Ekuakille, and P. Vergallo, “Non-invasivereflectometry-baseddetection of melanoma by piezoelectric micro-needle antenna sensors,” Progress in Electromagnetics Research, vol. 135, pp. 91–103, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  16. R. Ribichini, Modelling of electromagnetic acoustic transducer [Ph.D. thesis], Doctor of Philosophy, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Imperial Colledge London, 2011.
  17. S. Dixon, C. Edwards, and S. B. Palmer, “High accuracy non-contact ultrasonic thickness gauging of aluminium sheet using electromagnetic acoustic transducers,” Ultrasonics, vol. 39, no. 6, pp. 445–453, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  18. R. Dhayalan and K. Balasubramaniam, “A hybrid finite element model for simulation of electromagnetic acoustic transducer (EMAT) based plate waves,” NDT & E International, vol. 43, no. 6, pp. 519–526, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  19. S. Wang, L. Kang, Z. Li, G. Zhai, and L. Zhang, “3-D modeling and analysis of meander-line-coil surface wave EMATs,” Mechatronics, vol. 22, no. 6, pp. 653–660, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  20. M. Hirao and H. Ogi, EMATs for Science and Industry: Noncontacting Ultrasonic Measurements, Springer, Boston, Mass, USA, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  21. W. Luo and J. L. Rose, “Guided wave thickness measurement with EMATs,” Insight-Non-Destructive Testing and Condition Monitoring, vol. 45, no. 11, pp. 735–739, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  22. R. Dhayalan and K. Balasubramaniam, “A two-stage finite element model of a meander coil electromagnetic acoustic transducer transmitter,” Nondestructive Testing and Evaluation, vol. 26, no. 2, pp. 101–118, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  23. C. B. Scruby and B. C. Moss, “Non-contact ultrasonic measurements on steel at elevated temperatures,” NDT & E International, vol. 26, no. 4, pp. 177–188, 1993. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  24. R. Edwards, S. Dixon, and X. Jian, “Noncontact ultrasonic characterization of defects using EMATs,” in Proceedings of the 31st Annual Review of Progress in Quantitative Nondestructive Evaluation, pp. 1568–1575, Golden, Colo, USA, 2005.
  25. P. J. Latimer and D. T. MacLauchlan, “EMAT probe and technique for weld inspection,” Google Patents, 1998.
  26. R. Ludwig, Z. You, and R. Palanisamy, “Numerical simulations of an electromagnetic acoustic transducer-receiver system for NDT applications,” IEEE Transactions on Magnetics, vol. 29, no. 3, pp. 2081–2089, 1993. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  27. S. Thomas, S. S. A. Obayya, R. Taneja, and W. Balachandran, “A coupled electromagnetic and mechanical analysis of electromagnetic acoustic transducers,” International Journal for Computational Methods in Engineering Science and Mechanics, vol. 10, no. 2, pp. 124–133, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  28. M. Kaltenbacher, K. Ettinger, R. Lerch, and B. Tittmann, “Finite element analysis of coupled electromagnetic acoustic systems,” IEEE Transactions on Magnetics, vol. 35, no. 3, pp. 1610–1613, 1999. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  29. R. Murayama and K. Mizutani, “Conventional electromagnetic acoustic transducer development for optimum Lamb wave modes,” Ultrasonics, vol. 40, no. 1–8, pp. 491–495, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  30. X. Jian, S. Dixon, K. T. V. Grattan, and R. S. Edwards, “A model for pulsed Rayleigh wave and optimal EMAT design,” Sensors and Actuators A: Physical, vol. 128, no. 2, pp. 296–304, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  31. L. Kang, S. Dixon, K. Wang, and J. Dai, “Enhancement of signal amplitude of surface wave EMATs based on 3-D simulation analysis and orthogonal test method,” NDT & E International, vol. 59, pp. 11–17, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  32. S. Wang, L. Kang, Z. Li, G. Zhai, and L. Zhang, “A novel method for modeling and analysis of meander-line-coil surface wave EMATs,” in Life System Modeling and Intelligent Computing, pp. 467–474, Springer, 2010. View at Google Scholar
  33. S. Wang, Z. Li, L. Kang, and G. Zhai, “Influence of coil parameters on rayleigh waves excited by meander-line coil EMATs,” in Intelligent Computing for Sustainable Energy and Environment, vol. 355 of Communications in Computer and Information Science, pp. 94–103, Springer, Berlin, Germany, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  34. Y. Xie, W. Yin, and A. Peyton, “Quantitative simulation of ultrasonic and EMAT arrays using FEM and FDTD,” in Proceedings of the 11th European Conference on Non-Destructive Testing (ECNDT '14), Prague, Czech Republic, 2014.
  35. C. V. Dodd and W. E. Deeds, “Analytical solutions to eddy-current probe-coil problems,” Journal of Applied Physics, vol. 39, no. 6, pp. 2829–2838, 1968. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  36. J. R. Wait, Electromagnetic Waves in Stratified Media: Revised Edition Including Supplemented Material, vol. 3, Elsevier, 2013.
  37. J. R. Wait and K. P. Spies, “Subsurface electromagnetic fields of a line source on a conducting half-space,” Radio Science, vol. 6, no. 8-9, pp. 781–786, 1971. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  38. E. Bossy, SimSonic Suite User's Guide for SimSonic3D, 2012.
  39. J. Virieux, “P-SV wave propagation in heterogeneous media: velocity-stress finite-difference method,” Geophysics, vol. 51, no. 4, pp. 889–901, 1986. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  40. A. R. Mitchell and D. F. Griffiths, The Finite Difference Method in Partial Differential Equations, John Wiley & Sons, Chichester, UK, 1980. View at MathSciNet
  41. X. Jian, S. Dixon, K. Quirk, and K. T. V. Grattan, “Electromagnetic acoustic transducers for in- and out-of plane ultrasonic wave detection,” Sensors and Actuators A: Physical, vol. 148, no. 1, pp. 51–56, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  42. L. Azar, Y. Shi, and S.-C. Wooh, “Beam focusing behavior of linear phased arrays,” NDT & E International, vol. 33, no. 3, pp. 189–198, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  43. S.-C. Wooh and Y. Shi, “Optimum beam steering of linear phased arrays,” Wave Motion, vol. 29, no. 3, pp. 245–265, 1999. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  44. S.-C. Wooh and Y. Shi, “Simulation study of the beam steering characteristics for linear phased arrays,” Journal of Nondestructive Evaluation, vol. 18, no. 2, pp. 39–57, 1999. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus