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Journal of Sensors
Volume 2016, Article ID 6024610, 14 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2016/6024610
Research Article

GSR-TDMA: A Geometric Spatial Reuse-Time Division Multiple Access MAC Protocol for Multihop Underwater Acoustic Sensor Networks

Ocean System Research Division, Korea Research Institute of Ships and Ocean Engineering (KRISO), No. 32, Yuseong-daero, 1312beon-gil, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-343, Republic of Korea

Received 5 October 2015; Revised 6 December 2015; Accepted 10 December 2015

Academic Editor: Davide Brunelli

Copyright © 2016 Changho Yun and Yong-Kon Lim. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

The nonnegligible propagation delay of acoustic signals causes spatiotemporal uncertainty that occasionally enables simultaneous, collision-free packet transmission among underwater nodes (UNs). These transmissions can be handled by efficiently managing the channel access of the UNs in the data-link layer. To this end, Geometric Spatial Reuse-TDMA (GSR-TDMA), a new TDMA-based MAC protocol, is designed for use in centralized, multihop underwater acoustic sensor networks (UASNs), and in this case all UNs are periodically scheduled after determining a geometric map according to the information on their location. The scheduling strategy increases the number of UNs that send packets coincidentally via two subscheduling configurations (i.e., interhop and intrahop scheduling). Extensive simulations are used to investigate the reception success rate (RSR) and the multihop delay (MHD) of GSR-TDMA, and the results are compared to those of previous approaches, including C-MAC and HSR-TDMA. GSR-TDMA outperforms C-MAC; the RSR of GSR-TDMA is 15% higher than that of C-MAC, and the MHD of GSR-TDMA is 30% lower than that of C-MAC at the most. In addition, GSR-TDMA provides even better performance improvements over HSR-TDMA; the RSR of GSR-TDMA is 50% higher than that of HSR-TDMA, and the MHD of GSR-TDMA is an order of lower than that of HSR-TDMA at the most.