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Journal of Sensors
Volume 2016 (2016), Article ID 8572601, 10 pages
Research Article

Spectrum-Aware Geographic Routing in Cognitive Vehicular Ad Hoc Network Using a Kalman Filter

School of Electrical Engineering, University of Ulsan (UOU), Muger-Dong San-29, Ulsan 680-749, Republic of Korea

Received 5 August 2015; Revised 4 January 2016; Accepted 10 January 2016

Academic Editor: Jose R. Martinez-de Dios

Copyright © 2016 Huma Ghafoor and Insoo Koo. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


We propose a position-based routing protocol for cognitive radio vehicular ad hoc networks (CR-VANETs) using a Kalman filter algorithm. The protocol first selects an idle channel from among all the channels available to a vehicle while moving on a straight road and then finds the best relay node to deliver the packet to the destination. The selection of a relay node is done by dividing the vehicular transmission range into five regions, and then the source/relay node selects the one that is in the region having a higher preference than other regions. Communication between two vehicles occurs only when both the vehicles are on the same channel. Delay may increase while sensing the channel and selecting the relay node. To reduce the delay, we use a Kalman filter to predict the future positions of all moving vehicles in the network. We consider vehicle-to-vehicle communication and compare our protocol for different probabilities of primary user being idle. Our proposed protocol shows improvement in both packet delivery ratio and end-to-end delay.