Table of Contents Author Guidelines Submit a Manuscript
Journal of Sensors
Volume 2017, Article ID 2630413, 21 pages
Review Article

Evolution of Indoor Positioning Technologies: A Survey

1Tecnológico de Monterrey, Av. E. Garza Sada 2501, 64849 Monterrey, NL, Mexico
2Facultad de Ingeniería, MyDCI, Universidad Autónoma de Baja California, Av. Á. Obregón S/N, 21100 Mexicali, BC, Mexico
3Programa de Ingeniería de Software, Universidad Autónoma de Zacatecas, Av. Begonias 2, 98000 Zacatecas, ZAC, Mexico

Correspondence should be addressed to Juan Pablo García-Vázquez; xm.ude.cbau@aicrag.olbap

Received 13 October 2016; Revised 22 January 2017; Accepted 21 February 2017; Published 29 March 2017

Academic Editor: Alberto J. Palma

Copyright © 2017 Ramon F. Brena et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


Indoor positioning systems (IPS) use sensors and communication technologies to locate objects in indoor environments. IPS are attracting scientific and enterprise interest because there is a big market opportunity for applying these technologies. There are many previous surveys on indoor positioning systems; however, most of them lack a solid classification scheme that would structurally map a wide field such as IPS, or omit several key technologies or have a limited perspective; finally, surveys rapidly become obsolete in an area as dynamic as IPS. The goal of this paper is to provide a technological perspective of indoor positioning systems, comprising a wide range of technologies and approaches. Further, we classify the existing approaches in a structure in order to guide the review and discussion of the different approaches. Finally, we present a comparison of indoor positioning approaches and present the evolution and trends that we foresee.