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Journal of Sensors
Volume 2017, Article ID 6486891, 7 pages
Research Article

Detection of Stress Hormone in the Milk for Animal Welfare Using QCM Method

1Faculty of Engineering Science, Kansai University, Yamate-cho 3-3-35, Suita, Osaka 564-8680, Japan
2Kanagawa Institute of Industrial Science and Technology, Shimo-imaizumi 705-1, Ebina, Kanagawa 243-0435, Japan
3Livestock Industry Technology Station, Hongo 3750, Ebina, Kanagawa 243-0417, Japan
4School of Veterinary Medicine, Azabu University, Fuchinobe 1-17-71, Chuo, Sagamihara 252-5201, Japan
5Faculty of Science and Technology, Keio University, Hiyoshi 3-14-1, Kohoku, Yokohama 223-8522, Japan

Correspondence should be addressed to Takeshi Ito;

Received 16 May 2017; Accepted 10 July 2017; Published 17 September 2017

Academic Editor: Takemi Matsui

Copyright © 2017 Takeshi Ito et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


We developed a rapid and sequential analysis system to determine stress marker in the milk. One of the famous stress markers, cortisol, was detected using our method. Quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) method with a twin sensor was used in this study. One channel detected stress marker corresponding to antigen-antibody interaction and the other channel was used as a reference to remove environmental influences. Although nonspecific adsorption was monitored on each channel, frequency difference between them was within a few Hz on the injection of sample solution. One determination cycle including regeneration step could be performed within 10 minutes. The system could detect the cortisol level from 0.1 pg/mL to 100 pg/mL. These results show that our system has a potential to check the daily feeding condition for cows in terms of animal welfare.