Table of Contents Author Guidelines Submit a Manuscript
Journal of Sensors
Volume 2018, Article ID 1324145, 13 pages
https://doi.org/10.1155/2018/1324145
Research Article

Microfluidic Biosensor Based on Microwave Substrate-Integrated Waveguide Cavity Resonator

1School of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, College of Engineering, Chung-Ang University, 84 Heukseok-ro, Dongjak-gu, Seoul 06974, Republic of Korea
2School of Mechanical Engineering, College of Engineering, Chung-Ang University, 84 Heukseok-ro, Dongjak-gu, Seoul 06974, Republic of Korea

Correspondence should be addressed to Sungjoon Lim; rk.ca.uac@noojgnus

Received 11 July 2017; Revised 26 October 2017; Accepted 29 November 2017; Published 1 February 2018

Academic Editor: Romeo Bernini

Copyright © 2018 Ahmed Salim et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. G. Guarin, M. Hofmann, J. Nehring, R. Weigel, and G. Fischer, “Miniature microwave biosensors: noninvasive applications,” IEEE Microwave Magazine, vol. 16, no. 4, pp. 71–86, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  2. D. Grieshaber, R. Mackenzie, J. Vörös, and E. Reimhult, “Electrochemical biosensors - sensor principles and architectures,” Sensors, vol. 8, no. 3, pp. 1400–1458, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  3. R. Bashir, “BioMEMS: state-of-the-art in detection, opportunities and prospects,” Advanced Drug Delivery Reviews, vol. 56, no. 11, pp. 1565–1586, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  4. F. G. Bǎnicǎ, Chemical Sensors and Biosensors: Fundamentals and Applications, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Hoboken, NJ USA, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  5. D. L. Andrews, Photonics: Scientific Foundations, Technology and Applications. Volume IV: Biomedical Photonics, Spectroscopy, and Microscopy, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ USA, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  6. T. Chen, S. Li, and H. Sun, “Metamaterials application in sensing,” Sensors, vol. 12, pp. 2742–2765, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  7. F. Artis, D. Dubuc, J.-J. Fournie, M. Poupot, and K. Grenier, “Microwave dielectric bio-sensing for precise and repetitive living cells suspension analysis,” in 2013 European Microwave Conference (EuMC), pp. 468–470, Nuremberg, Germany, October 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  8. J. C. Booth, N. D. Orloff, J. Mateu, M. Janezic, M. Rinehart, and J. A. Beall, “Quantitative permittivity measurements of nanoliter liquid volumes in microfluidic channels to 40 GHz,” IEEE Transactions on Instrumentation and Measurement, vol. 59, no. 12, pp. 3279–3288, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  9. H. J. Lee and J. G. Yook, “Recent research trends of radio-frequency biosensors for biomolecular detection,” Biosensors and Bioelectronics, vol. 61, pp. 448–459, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  10. S. H. Son, H. J. Kim, K. J. Lee et al., “Experimental measurement system for 3–6 GHz microwave breast tomography,” Journal of Electromagnetic Engineering and Science, vol. 15, no. 4, pp. 250–257, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  11. K. Grenier, D. Dubuc, P. E. Poleni et al., “Integrated broadband microwave and microfluidic sensor dedicated to bioengineering,” IEEE Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques, vol. 57, no. 12, pp. 3246–3253, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  12. G. J. Yi, W. G. Kang, H. J. Kim, S. I. Jeon, and J. K. Pack, “A prototype system for early-stage breast cancer detection,” Journal of Electromagnetic Engineering and Science, vol. 15, no. 3, pp. 158–166, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  13. F. Artis, T. Chen, T. Chretiennot et al., “Microwaving biological cells: intracellular analysis with microwave dielectric spectroscopy,” IEEE Microwave Magazine, vol. 16, no. 4, pp. 87–96, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  14. Y. Chen, H. Wu, Y. Hong, and H. Lee, “New RF biosensor based on planar LC resonant circuit for human cancer cells characterization,” International Journal of Science and Engineering, vol. 4, no. 2, pp. 335–338, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  15. N. Y. Kim, R. Dhakal, K. K. Adhikari, E. S. Kim, and C. Wang, “A reusable robust radio frequency biosensor using microwave resonator by integrated passive device technology for quantitative detection of glucose level,” Biosensors and Bioelectronics, vol. 67, pp. 687–693, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  16. M. De Ona, S. Melón, P. De La Iglesia, F. Hidalgo, and A. F. Verdugo, “Isolation of influenza virus in human lung embryonated fibroblast cells (MRC-5) from clinical samples,” Journal of Clinical Microbiology, vol. 33, no. 7, pp. 1948-1949, 1995. View at Google Scholar
  17. B. D. Uhal, C. Ramos, I. Joshi, A. Bifero, A. Pardo, and M. Selman, “Cell size, cell cycle, and α-smooth muscle actin expression by primary human lung fibroblasts,” American Journal of Physiology-Lung Cellular and Molecular Physiology, vol. 275, no. 5, pp. L998–L1005, 1998. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  18. W. Park and S. Lim, “A low phase-noise microwave oscillator using a substrate integrated waveguide resonator based on complementary split ring resonator,” in 2011 Asia-Pacific Microwave Conference Proceedings (APMC), pp. 371–374, Melbourne, VIC, USA, December 2011.
  19. Y. Seo, M. U. Memon, and S. Lim, “Microfluidic eighth-mode substrate-integrated- waveguide antenna for compact ethanol chemical sensor application,” IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation, vol. 64, no. 7, pp. 3218–3222, 2016. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  20. T. Yun and S. Lim, “High-Q and miniaturized complementary split ring resonator-loaded substrate integrated waveguide microwave sensor for crack detection in metallic materials,” Sensors and Actuators A: Physical, vol. 214, pp. 25–30, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  21. M. U. Memon and S. Lim, “Reusable EGaIn-injected substrate-integrated-waveguide resonator for wireless sensor applications,” Sensors, vol. 15, no. 11, pp. 28563–28573, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  22. S. Liu, I. Ocket, D. Schreurs, B. Nauwelaers, and W. De-Raedt, “A 60 GHz liquid sensing substrate integrated cavity in LTCC,” in 2013 European Microwave Conference (EuMC), pp. 613–615, Nuremberg, Germany, October 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  23. S. Liu, I. Ocket, D. Schreurs, W. De Raedt, and B. Nauwelaers, “A 90 GHz liquid sensing substrate integrated cavity resonator in LTCC for microfluidic sensing applications,” in 2014 IEEE MTT-S International Microwave Workshop Series on RF and Wireless Technologies for Biomedical and Healthcare Applications (IMWS-Bio), pp. 6–8, London, UK, December 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  24. K. Saeed, R. D. Pollard, and I. C. Hunter, “Substrate integrated waveguide cavity resonators for complex permittivity characterization of materials,” IEEE Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques, vol. 56, no. 10, pp. 2340–2347, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  25. J. D. Barrera and G. H. Huff, “Analysis of a variable SIW resonator enabled by dielectric material perturbations and applications,” IEEE Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques, vol. 61, no. 1, pp. 225–233, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  26. N. Haase and A. F. Jacob, “Characterization of biological substances using a substrate integrated microwave near-field sensor,” in 2012 42nd European Microwave Conference (EuMC), pp. 432–435, Amsterdam, Netherlands, November 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  27. M. Bozzi, A. Georgiadis, and K. Wu, “Review of substrate-integrated waveguide circuits and antennas,” IET Microwaves, Antennas & Propagation, vol. 5, no. 8, pp. 909–920, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  28. T. Meissner and F. J. Wentz, “The complex dielectric constant of pure and sea water from microwave satellite observations,” IEEE Transactions on Geoscience and Remote Sensing, vol. 42, no. 9, pp. 1836–1849, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  29. H. P. Schwan, “Electrical properties of tissues and cell suspensions: mechanisms and models,” in Proceedings of the 16th Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society, 1994. Engineering Advances: New Opportunities for Biomedical Engineers, pp. 70-71, Baltimore, MD, USA, November 1994. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  30. M. Yvanoff, “LC Sensor for biological tissue characterization,” Doctorate Thesis in MICROSYSTEMS ENGINEERING, Rochester Institute of Technology, New York, 2008. View at Google Scholar
  31. M. Yvanoff and J. Venkataraman, “A feasibility study of tissue characterization using LC sensors,” IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation, vol. 57, no. 4, pp. 885–893, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  32. A. Salim and S. Lim, “Complementary split-ring resonator-loaded microfluidic ethanol chemical sensor,” Sensors, vol. 16, no. 11, p. 1802, 2016. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  33. “Data sheet of SMA connector manufactured by GigaLane Co. Ltd.,” January 2017, http://www.gigalane.co.kr/board/bbs/board.php?bo_table=product1&wr_id=39&page=3.
  34. G.-H. Lee, Y. E. Park, M. Cho, H. Park, and J. Y. Park, “Magnetic force-assisted self-locking metallic bead array for fabrication of diverse concave microwell geometries,” Lab on a Chip, vol. 16, no. 18, pp. 3565–3575, 2016. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  35. J. Y. Park, C. M. Hwang, and S. H. Lee, “Ice-lithographic fabrication of concave microwells and a microfluidic network,” Biomedical Microdevices, vol. 11, no. 1, pp. 129–133, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  36. G. M. Whitesides, “The origins and the future of microfluidics,” Nature, vol. 442, no. 7101, pp. 368–373, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  37. E. Nash and K. Barrett, “Calibration-free return loss measurements by analog device,” http://www.analog.com/media/en/technical-documentation/technical-articles/Calibration-Free-Return-Loss-Measurement.PDF.
  38. H. J. Lee, J. H. Lee, H. S. Moon et al., “A planar split-ring resonator-based microwave biosensor for label-free detection of biomolecules,” Sensors and Actuators B: Chemical, vol. 169, pp. 26–31, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  39. H. J. Lee, J. H. Lee, and H. I. Jung, “A symmetric metamaterial element-based RF biosensor for rapid and label-free detection,” Applied Physics Letters, vol. 99, no. 16, pp. 163701–163704, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  40. H. J. Lee, H. S. Lee, K. H. Yoo, and J. G. Yook, “DNA sensing using split-ring resonator alone at microwave regime,” Journal of Applied Physics, vol. 108, no. 1, article 014908, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  41. M. U. Memon and S. Lim, “Millimeter-wave chemical sensor using substrate-integrated-waveguide cavity,” Sensors, vol. 16, p. 1829, 2016. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  42. M. Hofmann, T. Fersch, R. Weigel, G. Fischer, and D. Kissinger, “A novel approach to non-invasive blood glucose measurement based on RF transmission,” in 2011 IEEE International Workshop on Medical Measurements and Applications Proceedings (MeMeA), no. 3, pp. 39–42, Bari, Italy, May 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  43. A. Mohammadi, A. Ismail, M. Adzir, R. Syamsul, and A. Raja, “Carbon-nanotube-based FR-4 patch antenna as a bio-material sensor,” Procedia Engineering, vol. 41, pp. 724–728, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  44. E. Silavwe, N. Somjit, and I. D. Robertson, “A microfluidic-integrated SIW lab-on-substrate sensor for microliter liquid characterization,” IEEE Sensors Journal, vol. 16, no. 21, pp. 7628–7635, 2016. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  45. H. Lobato-Morales, A. Corona-Chávez, D. V. B. Murthy, and J. L. Olvera-Cervantes, “Complex permittivity measurements using cavity perturbation technique with substrate integrated waveguide cavities,” The Review of Scientific Instruments, vol. 81, no. 6, p. 064704, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  46. J. Leroy, C. Dalmay, A. Landoulsi et al., “Microfluidic biosensors for microwave dielectric spectroscopy,” Sensors and Actuators A: Physical, vol. 229, pp. 172–181, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  47. C. Dalmay, A. Pothier, P. Blondy, M. Cheray, F. Lalloue, and M. O. Jauberteau, “RF biosensor based on microwave filter for biological cell characterisation,” in European Microwave Conference, 2009. EuMC 2009, pp. 41–44, Rome, Italy, October 2009.
  48. T. Chretiennot, D. Dubuc, and K. Grenier, “Microwave-based microfluidic sensor for non-destructive and quantitative glucose monitoring in aqueous solution,” Sensors, vol. 16, no. 10, p. 1733, 2016. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  49. M. Yang and C. Dai, “Ethanol microsensors with a readout circuit manufactured using the CMOS-MEMS technique,” Sensors, vol. 15, no. 1, pp. 1623–1634, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus