Table of Contents Author Guidelines Submit a Manuscript
Journal of Sensors
Volume 2018, Article ID 8672769, 18 pages
https://doi.org/10.1155/2018/8672769
Review Article

Monitoring and Control Systems in Agriculture Using Intelligent Sensor Techniques: A Review of the Aeroponic System

1Key Laboratory of Modern Agricultural Equipment and Technology, Ministry of Education, Institute of Agricultural Engineering, Jiangsu University, Zhenjiang, 212013 Jiangsu, China
2Research Centre of Fluid Machinery Engineering and Technology, Jiangsu University, Zhenjiang, 212013 Jiangsu, China

Correspondence should be addressed to Gao Jianmin; moc.361@sjunimnaijoag

Received 24 May 2018; Revised 1 October 2018; Accepted 15 October 2018; Published 19 December 2018

Guest Editor: Marco Grossi

Copyright © 2018 Imran Ali Lakhiar et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. J. James and M. P. Maheshwar, “Plant growth monitoring system, with dynamic user-interface,” in 2016 IEEE Region 10 Humanitarian Technology Conference (R10-HTC), pp. 1–5, Agra, India, December 2016. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  2. D. Pimentel, B. Berger, D. Filiberto et al., “Water resources: agricultural and environmental issues,” Bioscience, vol. 54, no. 10, pp. 909–918, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  3. M. Taher Kahil, J. Albiac, A. Dinar et al., “Improving the performance of water policies: evidence from drought in Spain,” Water, vol. 8, no. 2, p. 34, 2016. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  4. W. Foote, To Feed the World in 2050, We Need to View Small-Scale Farming as a Business, Skoll World Forum, Oxford, UK, 2015.
  5. V. Doknić, Internet of Things Greenhouse Monitoring and Automation System. Internet of Things: Smart Devices, Processes, Services, 2014, http://193.40.244.77/idu0330/wpcontent/uploads/2015/09/140605_Internet-of-Things_Vesna-Doknic.pdf.
  6. D. K. Großkinsky, J. Svensgaard, S. Christensen, and T. Roitsch, “Plant phenomics and the need for physiological phenotyping across scales to narrow the genotype-to-phenotype knowledge gap,” Journal of Experimental Botany, vol. 66, no. 18, pp. 5429–5440, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  7. E. Playán and L. Mateos, “Modernization and optimization of irrigation systems to increase water productivity,” Agricultural Water Management, vol. 80, no. 1-3, pp. 100–116, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  8. L. Levidow, D. Zaccaria, R. Maia, E. Vivas, M. Todorovic, and A. Scardigno, “Improving water-efficient irrigation: prospects and difficulties of innovative practices,” Agricultural Water Management, vol. 146, pp. 84–94, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  9. R. Qiu, S. Wei, M. Zhang et al., “Sensors for measuring plant phenotyping: a review,” International Journal of Agricultural and Biological Engineering, vol. 11, no. 2, pp. 1–17, 2018. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  10. W. Baudoin, R. Nono-Womdim, N. Lutaladio et al., Good Agricultural Practices for Greenhouse Vegetable Crops: Principles for Mediterranean Climate Areas (No. 217), Food and Agriculture Organization of The United Nations, Rome, 2013.
  11. M. Lee and H. Yoe, “Analysis of environmental stress factors using an artificial growth system and plant fitness optimization,” BioMed Research International, vol. 2015, Article ID 292543, 6 pages, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  12. S. M. Moon, S. Y. Kwon, and J. H. Lim, “Minimization of temperature ranges between the top and bottom of an air flow controlling device through hybrid control in a plant factory,” The Scientific World Journal, vol. 2014, Article ID 801590, 7 pages, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  13. C. Stanghellini, “Horticultural production in greenhouses: efficient use of water,” Acta Horticulturae, vol. 1034, pp. 25–32, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  14. D. Savvas, G. Gianquinto, Y. Tuzel, and N. Gruda, “Soilless culture,” in Good Agricultural Practices for Greenhouse Vegetable Crops: Principles for Mediterranean Climate Areas (No. 217), W. Baudoin, R. Nono-Womdim, N. Lutaladio et al., Eds., pp. 303–354, Food and Agriculture Organization of The United Nations, Rome, 2013. View at Google Scholar
  15. I. A. Lakhiar, X. Liu, G. Wang, and J. Gao, “Experimental study of ultrasonic atomizer effects on values of EC and pH of nutrient solution,” International Journal of Agricultural and Biological Engineering, vol. 11, no. 5, pp. 59–64, 2018. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  16. J. P. Beibel, Hydroponics -The Science of Growing Crops without Soil, Department of Agriculture. Tallahassee. Bulletin, 1960.
  17. J. L. Reyes, R. Montoya, C. Ledesma, and R. Ramírez, “Development of an aeroponic system for vegetable production,” Acta Horticulturae, vol. 947, pp. 153–156, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  18. M. Raviv and L. Lieth, “Significance of soilless culture in agriculture,” in Soilless Culture: Theory and Practice, M. Raviv and J. H. Lieth, Eds., pp. 117–156, Elsevier, Amsterdam, 2007. View at Google Scholar
  19. V. Valenzano, A. Parente, F. Serio, and P. Santamaria, “Effect of growing system and cultivar on yield and water-use efficiency of greenhouse-grown tomato,” The Journal of Horticultural Science and Biotechnology, vol. 83, no. 1, pp. 71–75, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  20. L. Maharana and D. N. Koul, “The emergence of hydroponics,” Yojana, vol. 55, pp. 39-40, 2011. View at Google Scholar
  21. International Center of Applied Aeroponics (ICAA), Press Release: Golden Potato, Hanoi, Vietnam, 2014, http://www.icaeroponics.com/press-release.html.
  22. NASA Spinoff, Innovative Partnership Program, Publications and Graphics Department NASA Center for Aerospace Information (CASI), 2006.
  23. I. A. Lakhiar, J. Gao, T. N. Syed, F. A. Chandio, and N. A. Buttar, “Modern plant cultivation technologies in agriculture under controlled environment: a review on aeroponics,” Journal of Plant Interactions, vol. 13, no. 1, pp. 338–352, 2018. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  24. F. Xiong and K. Qiao, “Intelligent systems and its application in agriculture,” IFAC Proceedings Volumes, vol. 32, no. 2, pp. 5597–5602, 1999. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  25. Z. Zhai, J.-F. Martínez Ortega, N. Lucas Martínez, and J. Rodríguez-Molina, “A mission planning approach for precision farming systems based on multi-objective optimization,” Sensors, vol. 18, no. 6, p. 1795, 2018. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  26. S. O. Petersen, C. C. Hoffmann, C. M. Schafer et al., “Annual emissions of CH4 and N2O, and ecosystem respiration, from eight organic soils in Western Denmark managed by agriculture,” Biogeosciences, vol. 9, no. 1, pp. 403–422, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  27. G. Mohammed, F. Trolard, M. Gillon, A. L. Cognard-Plancq, A. Chanzy, and G. Bourrie, “Combination of a crop model and a geochemical model as a new approach to evaluate the sustainability of an intensive agriculture system,” Science of The Total Environment, vol. 595, pp. 119–131, 2017. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  28. J. Gago, C. Douthe, R. E. Coopman et al., “UAVs challenge to assess water stress for sustainable agriculture,” Agricultural Water Management, vol. 153, pp. 9–19, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  29. D. H. Park and J. W. Park, “Wireless sensor network-based greenhouse environment monitoring and automatic control system for dew condensation prevention,” Sensors, vol. 11, no. 4, pp. 3640–3651, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  30. A. Barriuso, G. Villarrubia González, J. de Paz, Á. Lozano, and J. Bajo, “Combination of multi-agent systems and wireless sensor networks for the monitoring of cattle,” Sensors, vol. 18, no. 2, p. 108, 2018. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  31. M. Perez-Ruiz, P. Gonzalez-de-Santos, A. Ribeiro et al., “Highlights and preliminary results for autonomous crop protection,” Computers and Electronics in Agriculture, vol. 110, pp. 150–161, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  32. A. Maher, E. Kamel, F. Enrico, I. Atif, and M. Abdelkader, “An intelligent system for the climate control and energy savings in agricultural greenhouses,” Energy Efficiency, vol. 9, no. 6, pp. 1241–1255, 2016. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  33. A. R. De la Concepcion, R. Stefanelli, and D. Trinchero, “A wireless sensor network platform optimized for assisted sustainable agriculture,” in IEEE Global Humanitarian Technology Conference (GHTC 2014), pp. 159–165, San Jose, CA, USA, October 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  34. B. Basnet and J. Bang, “The state-of-the-art of knowledge-intensive agriculture: a review on applied sensing systems and data analytics,” Journal of Sensors, vol. 2018, Article ID 3528296, 13 pages, 2018. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  35. Aqeel-ur-Rehman and Z. A. Shaikh, “Smart agriculture,” in Application of Modern High-Performance Networks, pp. 120–129, Bentham Science Publishers Ltd, 2009. View at Google Scholar
  36. N. Wang, N. Zhang, and M. Wang, “Wireless sensors in agriculture and food industry—recent development and future perspective,” Computers and Electronics in Agriculture, vol. 50, no. 1, pp. 1–14, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  37. L. Ruiz-Garcia, L. Lunadei, P. Barreiro, and I. Robla, “A review of wireless sensor technologies and applications in agriculture and food industry: state of the art and current trends,” Sensors, vol. 9, no. 6, pp. 4728–4750, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  38. W. Zhang, G. Kantor, and S. Singh, “Integrated wireless sensor/actuator networks in an agricultural application,” in Proceedings of the 2nd international conference on Embedded networked sensor systems - SenSys ‘04, p. 317, Baltimore, MD, USA, November 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  39. L. B. Tik, C. T. Khuan, and S. Palaniappan, “Monitoring of an aeroponic greenhouse with a sensor network,” IJCSNS International Journal of Computer Science and Network Security, vol. 9, no. 3, pp. 240–246, 2009. View at Google Scholar
  40. M. Pala, L. Mizenko, M. Mach, and T. Reed, “Aeroponic greenhouse as an autonomous system using intelligent space for agriculture robotics,” in Robot Intelligence Technology and Applications 2. Advances in Intelligent Systems and Computing, vol 274, J. H. Kim, E. Matson, H. Myung, P. Xu, and F. Karray, Eds., pp. 83–93, Springer, Cham, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  41. P. Laksono, I. Idris, M. I. Sani, and D. N. Putra, “Lab prototype of wireless monitoring and control for seed potatoes growing chamber,” Proceedings of the Asia-Pacific Advanced Network, vol. 37, pp. 20–29, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  42. P. Jonas, A. Maskara, A. Salguero, and A. Truong, “Garduino: a cyber-physical aeroponics system,” 2015, http://arxiv.org/abs/1011.1669v3, http://ecal.berkeley.edu/files/ce186/projects/truonganders{\_}4941954{\_}63829747{\_}Garduino-1.pdf. View at Google Scholar
  43. M. I. Sani, S. Siregar, A. P. Kurniawan, R. Jauhari, and C. N. Mandalahi, “Web-based monitoring and control system for aeroponics growing chamber,” in 2016 International Conference on Control, Electronics, Renewable Energy and Communications (ICCEREC), pp. 162–168, Bandung, Indonesia, September 2016. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  44. P. Anitha and P. S. Periasamy, “Energy efficient green house monitoring in the aeroponics system using Zigbee networks,” Asian Journal of Research in Social Sciences and Humanities, vol. 6, no. 6, pp. 2243–2250, 2016. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  45. K. Kernahan and C. A. Cupertino, “Aeroponics growth system wireless control system and method of using,” Tech. Rep., US Patent 20160021836A1, 2016. View at Google Scholar
  46. A. P. Montoya, F. A. Obando, J. G. Morales, and G. Vargas, “Automatic aeroponic irrigation system based on Arduino’s platform,” Journal of Physics: Conference Series, vol. 850, article 012003, 2017. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  47. S. C. Kerns and J. L. Lee, “Automated aeroponics system using IoT for smart farming,” in 8th International Scientific Forum, ISF 2017, UNCP, USA, September 2017. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  48. T. Karu, “High precision farming system based on aeroponics,” Tech. Rep., Master’s Thesis. Tallinn University of Technology, Faculty of Information Technology, 2017. View at Google Scholar
  49. J. A. Martin and S. Rafael, “Systems, methods and devices for aeroponics plant growth,” Tech. Rep., US Patent US20180007845A1, 2018. View at Google Scholar
  50. P. Mithunesh, K. Gupta, S. Ghule, and P. S. Hule, “Aeroponic based controlled environment based farming system,” IOSR Journal of Computer Engineering (IOSR-JCE), vol. 17, no. 6, pp. 55–58, 2015. View at Google Scholar
  51. I. Idris and M. I. Sani, “Monitoring and control of aeroponic growing system for potato production,” in 2012 IEEE Conference on Control, Systems & Industrial Informatics, Bandung, Indonesia, September 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  52. K. Janarthanan, K. Theviyanthan, F. M. Najath, and I. A. Ahamed, “Cyberponics – a fully automated greenhouse system,” Tech. Rep., Bachelors Thesis. Project ID: CTP/2017/01. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  53. J. Liu and Y. W. Zhang, “An automatic aeroponics growth system for bamboo seedling and root observation,” Applied Mechanics and Materials, vol. 307, pp. 97–102, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  54. J. Liu and Y. W. Zhang, “An automatic aeroponics growth system based on ultrasonic atomization,” Applied Mechanics and Materials, vol. 288, pp. 161–166, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  55. J. Osvald, N. Petrovic, and J. Demsar, “Sugar and organic acid content of tomato fruits (Lycopersicon lycopersicum mill.) grown on aeroponics at different plant density,” Acta Alimentaria, vol. 30, no. 1, pp. 53–61, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  56. I. Nir, “Growing plants in aeroponics growth system,” Acta Horticulturae, vol. 126, pp. 435–448, 1982. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  57. F. Zsoldos, A. Vashegyi, and L. Erdei, “Lack of active K+ uptake in aeroponically grown wheat seedlings,” Physiologia Plantarum, vol. 71, no. 3, pp. 359–364, 1987. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  58. P. Barak, J. D. Smith, A. R. Krueger, and L. A. Peterson, “Measurement of short-term nutrient uptake rates in cranberry by aeroponics,” Plant Cell and Environment, vol. 19, no. 2, pp. 237–242, 1996. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  59. M. W. Mbiyu, J. Muthoni, J. Kabira et al., “Use of aeroponics technique for potato (Solanum tuberosum) minitubers production in Kenya,” Journal of Horticulture and Forestry, vol. 4, no. 11, pp. 172–177, 2012. View at Google Scholar
  60. C. S. Buer, M. J. Correll, T. C. Smith et al., “Development of a nontoxic acoustic window nutrient-mist bioreactor and relevant growth data,” In Vitro Cellular & Developmental Biology - Plant, vol. 32, no. 4, pp. 299–304, 1996. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  61. R. W. Zobel and R. F. Lychalk, “Aeroponic growth system with nutrient fog stabilization,” Tech. Rep., US Patent US5937575A, 1999. View at Google Scholar
  62. M. I. Hessel, G. E. Richert, and J. G. E. Nevill, “Airflow-contained aeroponic nutrient delivery for a microgravity plant growth unit,” Biotronics, vol. 21, pp. 33–38, 1993. View at Google Scholar
  63. J. M. Clawson, A. Hoehn, L. S. Stodieck, and P. Todd, NASA-Review of Aeroponics, Aeroponics for Spaceflight Plant Growth, Society of Automotive Engineers, Inc, 2000, http://aeroponicsdiy.com/nasa-review-of-aeroponics/.
  64. K. T. Hubick, D. R. Drakeford, and D. M. Reid, “A comparison of two techniques for growing minimally water-stressed plants,” Canadian Journal of Botany, vol. 60, no. 3, pp. 219–223, 1982. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  65. D. V. Shtrausberg and E. G. Rakitina, “On the aeration and gas regime of roots in aeroponics and water culture,” Agrokhitniia, vol. 4, pp. 101–110, 1970. View at Google Scholar
  66. H. Soffer and D. W. Burger, “Effects of dissolved oxygen concentration in aero-hydroponics on the formation and growth of adventitious roots,” Journal of the American Society for Horticultural Science, vol. 113, pp. 218–221, 1988. View at Google Scholar
  67. L. L. Hung and D. M. Sylvia, “Production of vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus inoculum in aeroponic culture,” Applied and Environmental Microbiology, vol. 54, pp. 353–357, 1988. View at Google Scholar
  68. D. M. Sylvia and A. G. Jarstfer, “Sheared—root inocula of vesicular— arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi,” Applied and Environmental Microbiology, vol. 58, no. 1, pp. 229–232, 1992. View at Google Scholar
  69. R. E. Wagner and H. T. Wilkinson, “An aeroponics system for investigating disease development on soybean taproots infected with Phytophthora sojae,” Plant Disease, vol. 76, no. 6, pp. 610–614, 1992. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  70. D. M. Sylvia and D. H. Hubbel, “Growth and sporulation of vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi in aeroponic and membrane systems,” Symbiosis, vol. 1, pp. 259–267, 1986. View at Google Scholar
  71. R. W. Zobel, P. del Tredici, and J. G. Torrey, “Method for growing plants aeroponically,” Plant Physiology, vol. 57, no. 3, pp. 344–346, 1976. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  72. C. B. Christie and M. A. Nichols, “Aeroponics – a production system and research tool. South pacific soilless culture conference,” Acta Horticulturae, vol. 648, pp. 185–190, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  73. A. L. Hayden, “Aeroponic and hydroponic systems for medicinal herb, rhizome and root crops,” HortScience, vol. 41, no. 3, pp. 536–538, 2006. View at Google Scholar
  74. S. Chandra, S. Khan, B. Avula et al., “Assessment of total phenolic and flavonoid content, antioxidant properties, and yield of aeroponically and conventionally grown leafy vegetables and fruit crops: a comparative study,” Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine, vol. 2014, Article ID 253875, 9 pages, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  75. L. J. du Toit, H. W. Kirby, and W. L. Pedersen, “Evaluation of an aeroponics system to screen maize genotypes for resistance to fusarium graminearum seedling blight,” Plant Disease, vol. 81, no. 2, pp. 175–179, 1997. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  76. D. S. Mueller, S. Li, G. L. Hartman, and W. L. Pedersen, “Use of aeroponic chambers and grafting to study partial resistance to Fusarium solani f. sp. glycines in soybean,” Plant Disease, vol. 86, no. 11, pp. 1223–1226, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  77. N. Kacjan-Maršić, and J. Osvald, “Nitrate content in lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) grown on aeroponics with different quantities of nitrogen in the nutrient solution,” Acta Agronomica Hungarica, vol. 50, no. 4, pp. 389–397, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  78. G. Fascella and G. V. Zizzo, “Preliminary results of aeroponic cultivation of Anthurium andreanum for cut flower production. VIII international symposium on protected cultivation in mild winter climates: advances in soil and soilless cultivation under protected environment,” Acta Horticulturae, no. 747, pp. 233–240, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  79. F. Martin-Laurent, F. Y. Tham, S. K. Lee, J. He, and H. G. Diem, “Field assessment of aeroponically grown and nodulated Acacia mangium,” Australian Journal of Botany, vol. 48, no. 1, pp. 109–114, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  80. T. Buckseth, A. K. Sharma, K. K. Pandey, B. P. Singh, and R. Muthuraj, “Methods of pre-basic seed potato production with special reference to aeroponics—a review,” Scientia Horticulturae, vol. 204, pp. 79–87, 2016. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  81. A. H. Calori, T. L. Factor, J. C. Feltran, E. Y. Watanabe, C. C. Moraes, and L. F. V. Purquerio, “Electrical conductivity of the nutrient solution and plant density in aeroponic production of seed potato under tropical conditions (winter/spring),” Bragantia, vol. 76, no. 1, pp. 23–32, 2017. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  82. S. Abdullateef, M. H. Bohme, and I. Pinker, “Potato minituber production at different plant densities using an aeroponic system,” Acta Horticulturae, vol. 927, pp. 429–436, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  83. I. Farran and A. M. Mingo-Castel, “Potato minituber production using aeroponics: effect of plant density and harvesting intervals,” American Journal of Potato Research, vol. 83, no. 1, pp. 47–53, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  84. H. S. Kim, E. M. Lee, M. A. Lee et al., “Production of high-quality potato plantlets by autotrophic culture for aeroponic systems,” Journal of the Korean Society for Horticultural Science, vol. 123, pp. 330–333, 1999. View at Google Scholar
  85. D. H. Park, B. J. Kang, K. R. Cho et al., “A study on greenhouse automatic control system based on wireless sensor network,” Wireless Personal Communications, vol. 56, no. 1, pp. 117–130, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  86. Y.-S. Kim, “Expert development for automatic control of greenhouse environment,” Journal of Korean Flower Research Society, vol. 12, no. 4, pp. 341–345, 2004. View at Google Scholar
  87. Aqeel-ur-Rehman, A. Z. Abbasi, N. Islam, and Z. A. Shaikh, “A review of wireless sensors and networks’ applications in agriculture,” Computer Standards & Interfaces, vol. 36, no. 2, pp. 263–270, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  88. A. Arora, R. Ramnath, E. Ertin et al., “ExScal: elements of an extreme scale wireless sensor network,” in 11th IEEE International Conference on Embedded and Real-Time Computing Systems and Applications (RTCSA’05), pp. 102–108, Hong Kong, China, August 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  89. R. Aquino-Santos, A. Gonzalez-Potes, A. Edwards-Block, and R. A. Virgen-Ortiz, “Developing a new wireless sensor network platform and its application in precision agriculture,” Sensors, vol. 11, no. 1, pp. 1192–1211, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  90. S. Yoo, J. Kim, T. Kim, S. Ahn, J. Sung, and D. Kim, “A2S: automated agriculture systems based on WSN,” in 2007 IEEE International Symposium on Consumer Electronics, pp. 1–5, Irving, TX, USA, June 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  91. G. Abowd, A. K. Dey, P. Brown, N. Davies, M. Smith, and P. Steggles, Towards a Better Understanding of Context and Context-Awareness, The Workshop on The What, Who, Where, When, and How of Context-Awareness as Part of the 2000 Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems (CHI 2000), Springer, The Netherlands, 1999.
  92. B. N. Schilit and M. M. Theimer, “Disseminating active map information to mobile hosts,” IEEE Network, vol. 8, no. 5, pp. 22–32, 1994. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  93. V. Otazú, Manual on Quality Seed Potato Production Using Aeroponics, vol. 44, International Potato Center (CIP), Lima, Peru, 2010, http://cippotato.org.research/publication/manaul-on-quality-seed-potato-production-using-aeroponics. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  94. C. Wang, A. Zhang, and H. R. Karimi, “Development of La3+ doped CeO2 thick film humidity sensors,” Abstract and Applied Analysis, vol. 2014, Article ID 297632, 6 pages, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  95. Z. Chen and C. Lu, “Humidity sensors: a review of materials and mechanisms,” Sensor Letters, vol. 3, no. 4, pp. 274–295, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  96. S. D. Zor and H. Cankurtaran, “Impedimetric humidity sensor based on nanohybrid composite of conducting poly (diphenylamine sulfonic acid),” Journal of Sensors, vol. 2016, Article ID 5479092, 9 pages, 2016. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  97. I. Ioslovich and P. O. Gutman, “Optimal control of crop spacing in a plant factory,” Automatica, vol. 36, no. 11, pp. 1665–1668, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  98. K. Kato, R. Yoshida, A. Kikuzaki et al., “Molecular breeding of tomato lines for mass production of miraculin in a plant factory,” Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, vol. 58, no. 17, pp. 9505–9510, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  99. W. Bihlmayr, Application Note 313. Subject to Modifications, pp. 2–14, 2011, http://www.enocean.com.
  100. K. Kalwinder, Carbon Dioxide Sensor. AZO Sensor. Article ID=234, 2013, http://www.azosensors.com/article.aspx?ArticleID=234.
  101. T. Asao, Hydroponics - A Standard Methodology for Plant Biological Researches, Intech, Rijeka, Croatia, 1st edition, 2012.
  102. D. Borgognone, G. Colla, Y. Rouphael, M. Cardarelli, E. Rea, and D. Schwarz, “Effect of nitrogen form and nutrient solution pH on growth and mineral composition of self-grafted and grafted tomatoes,” Scientia Horticulturae, vol. 149, pp. 61–69, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  103. S. P. Friedman, “Soil properties influencing apparent electrical conductivity: a review,” Computers and Electronics in Agriculture, vol. 46, no. 1-3, pp. 45–70, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  104. L. Yang, V. Sarath Babu, J. Zou, X. C. Cai, T. Wu, and L. Lin, “The development of an intelligent monitoring system for agricultural inputs basing on DBN-SOFTMAX,” Journal of Sensors, vol. 2018, Article ID 6025381, 11 pages, 2018. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  105. T. L. Dinh, W. Hu, P. Sikka, P. Corke, L. Overs, and S. Brosnan, “Design and deployment of a remote robust sensor network: experiences from an outdoor water quality monitoring network,” in 32nd IEEE Conference on Local Computer Networks, pp. 799–806, Dublin, Ireland, October 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  106. P. Marino, F. P. Fontan, M. A. Dominiguez, and S. Otero, “Environmental monitoring based on emerging wireless technologies,” in Fourth International Conference on Networking and Services (icns 2008), pp. 30–34, Gosier, Guadeloupe, March 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  107. I. F. Akyildiz, W. Su, Y. Sankarasubramaniam, and E. Cayirci, “Wireless sensor networks: a survey,” Computer Networks, vol. 38, no. 4, pp. 393–422, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  108. M. A. Hebel, “Meeting wide-area agricultural data acquisition and control challenges through ZigBee wireless network technology,” in 4th World Congress Conference on Computers in Agriculture and Natural Resources, Orlando, FL, USA, July 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  109. P. K. Haneveld, Evading Murphy: A Sensor Network Deployment in Precision Agriculture, Delft, Netherlands, 2007, http://www.st.ewi.tudelft.nl/koen/papers/LOFAR-agro-take2.pdf.
  110. Y.-D. Lee, “Implementation of greenhouse environment monitoring system based on wireless sensor networks,” Journal of the Korea Institute of Information and Communication Engineering, vol. 17, no. 11, pp. 2686–2692, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  111. S. L. Andresen, “John McCarthy: father of AI,” IEEE Intelligent Systems Magazine, vol. 17, no. 5, pp. 84-85, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  112. P. Lu, S. Chen, and Y. Zheng, “Artificial intelligence in civil engineering,” Mathematical Problems in Engineering, vol. 2012, Article ID 145974, 22 pages, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  113. K. de Koning, “Automatic milking–common practice on dairy farms,” in Proceedings of the First North American Conference on Precision Dairy Management and the Second North American Conference on Robotic Milking, pp. 52–67, Toronto, Canada, 2010.
  114. S. H. Chen, A. J. Jakeman, and J. P. Norton, “Artificial intelligence techniques: an introduction to their use for modelling environmental systems,” Mathematics and Computers in Simulation, vol. 78, no. 2-3, pp. 379–400, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  115. W. Batayneh, O. Al-Araidah, and K. Bataineh, “Fuzzy logic approach to provide safe and comfortable indoor environment,” International Journal of Engineering, Science and Technology, vol. 2, no. 7, pp. 65–72, 2010. View at Google Scholar
  116. T. K. Das and Y. Das, “Design of a room temperature and humidity controller using fuzzy logic,” American Journal of Engineering Research, vol. 2, no. 11, pp. 86–97, 2013. View at Google Scholar
  117. P. G. Lee, “Process control and artificial intelligence software for aquaculture,” Aquacultural Engineering, vol. 23, no. 1-3, pp. 13–36, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  118. “Energias market research. Global artificial intelligence (AI) in agriculture market,” March 2018, https://www.energiasmarketresearch.com/global-artificial-intelligence-ai-agriculture-market/.
  119. C. Popa, “Adaption of artificial intelligence in agriculture,” Bulletin UASVM Agriculture, vol. 68, no. 1, pp. 284–293, 2011. View at Google Scholar
  120. A. Rafea, Expert System Applications: Agriculture, Central Laboratory for Expert Systems, Giza Egypt, 2009.
  121. K. S. Wai, A. L. B. A. Rahman, M. F. Zaiyadi, and A. A. Aziz, Expert System in Real World Applications, pp. 1–4, 2005, http://citeseerx.ist.psu.edu/viewdoc/download?doi=10.1.1.117.9964&rep=rep1&type=pdf.
  122. Y. Huang, Y. Lan, S. J. Thomson, A. Fang, W. C. Hoffmann, and R. E. Lacey, “Development of soft computing and applications in agricultural and biological engineering,” Computers and Electronics in Agriculture, vol. 71, no. 2, pp. 107–127, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  123. L. A. Zadeh, “Fuzzy sets,” Information and Control, vol. 8, no. 3, pp. 338–353, 1965. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  124. L. A. Zadeh, “Outline of a new approach to the analysis of complex systems and decision processes,” IEEE Transactions on Systems, Man, and Cybernetics, vol. SMC-3, no. 1, pp. 28–44, 1973. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  125. L. A. Zadeh, “Possibility theory and soft data analysis,” in Mathematical Frontiers of the Social and Policy Sciences, L. Cobb and R. M. Thrall, Eds., pp. 69–129, Westview Press, Boulder, CO, USA, 1981. View at Google Scholar
  126. D. E. Rumelhart and J. L. McClelland, Parallel Distributed Processing: Explorations in the Microstructures of Cognition, vol. I, MIT Press, Cambridge, MA, USA, 1986.
  127. D. E. Goldberg, Genetic Algorithms in Search, Optimization, and Machine Learning, Addison Wesley, Reading, MA, USA, 1989.
  128. R. Sui and J. A. Thomasson, “Ground-based sensing system for cotton nitrogen status determination,” Transactions of the ASABE, vol. 49, no. 6, pp. 1983–1991, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  129. S. D. Tumbo, D. G. Wagner, and P. H. Heinemann, “On-the-go sensing of chlorophyll status in corn,” Transactions of the ASAE, vol. 45, no. 4, pp. 1207–1215, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  130. L. Tang, L. Tian, and B. L. Steward, “Classification of broadleaf and grass weeds using Gabor wavelets and an artificial neural network,” Transactions of the ASAE, vol. 46, no. 4, pp. 1247–1254, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  131. M. S. El-Faki, N. Zhang, and D. E. Peterson, “Weed detection using color machine vision,” Transactions of the ASAE, vol. 43, no. 6, pp. 1969–1978, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  132. M. Krishnaswamy and P. Krishnan, “Nozzle wear rate prediction using regression and neural network,” Biosystems Engineering, vol. 82, no. 1, pp. 49–56, 2002. View at Google Scholar
  133. T. C. Pearson and D. T. Wicklow, “Detection of corn kernels infected by fungi,” Transactions of the ASABE, vol. 49, no. 4, pp. 1235–1245, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  134. B. A. Smith, G. Hoogenboom, and R. W. McClendon, “Artificial neural networks for automated year-round temperature prediction,” Computers and Electronics in Agriculture, vol. 68, no. 1, pp. 52–61, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  135. B. Center and B. P. Verma, “Fuzzy logic for biological and agricultural systems,” Artificial Intelligence Review, vol. 12, pp. 213–225, 1998. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  136. G. C. Vieira, A. R. de Mendonca, G. F. da Silva, S. S. Zanetti, M. M. da Silva, and A. R. dos Santos, “Prognoses of diameter and height of trees of eucalyptus using artificial intelligence,” Science of the Total Environment, vol. 619-620, pp. 1473–1481, 2018. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  137. N. T. R. Ahamed, K. G. Rao, and J. S. R. Murthy, “GIS-based fuzzy membership model for crop-land suitability analysis,” Agricultural Systems, vol. 63, no. 2, pp. 75–95, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  138. M. Boyland, J. Nelson, F. L. Bunnell, and R. G. D'Eon, “An application of fuzzy set theory for seral-class constraints in forest planning models,” Forest Ecology and Management, vol. 223, no. 1-3, pp. 395–402, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  139. P. F. Fisher, “Remote sensing of land cover classes as type 2 fuzzy sets,” Remote Sensing of Environment, vol. 114, no. 2, pp. 309–321, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  140. H. Jiang and J. R. Eastiman, “Application of fuzzy measures in multi-criteria evaluation in GIS,” International Journal of Geographical Information Science, vol. 14, no. 2, pp. 173–184, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  141. B. N. Joss, R. J. Hall, D. M. Sidders, and T. J. Keddy, “Fuzzy-logic modeling of land suitability for hybrid poplar across the Prairie Provinces of Canada,” Environmental Monitoring and Assessment, vol. 141, no. 1-3, pp. 79–96, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  142. J. Oldeland, W. Dorigo, L. Lieckfeld, A. Lucieer, and N. Jürgens, “Combining vegetation indices, constrained ordination and fuzzy classification for mapping semi-natural vegetation units from hyperspectral imagery,” Remote Sensing of Environment, vol. 114, no. 6, pp. 1155–1166, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  143. T. Phillips, S. Leyk, H. Rajaram et al., “Modeling moulin distribution on Sermeq Avannarleq glacier using ASTER and WorldView imagery and fuzzy set theory,” Remote Sensing of Environment, vol. 115, no. 9, pp. 2292–2301, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  144. A. Al-Faraj, G. E. Meyer, and G. L. Horst, “A crop water stress index for tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea Schreb.) irrigation decision-making—a fuzzy logic method,” Computers and Electronics in Agriculture, vol. 32, no. 2, pp. 69–84, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  145. S. J. Thomson, R. M. Peart, and J. W. Mishoe, “Parameter adjustment to a crop model using a sensor-based decision support system,” Transactions of the ASAE, vol. 36, no. 1, pp. 205–213, 1993. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  146. S. J. Thomson and B. B. Ross, “Model-based irrigation management using a dynamic parameter adjustment method,” Computers and Electronics in Agriculture, vol. 14, no. 4, pp. 269–290, 1996. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  147. C. C. Yang, S. O. Prasher, J. A. Landry, J. Perret, and H. S. Ramaswamy, “Recognition of weeds with image processing and their use with fuzzy logic for precision farming,” Canadian Agricultural Engineering, vol. 42, no. 4, pp. 195–200, 2000. View at Google Scholar
  148. C.-C. Yang, S. O. Prasher, J.-A. Landry, and H. S. Ramaswamy, “Development of an image processing system and a fuzzy algorithm for site-specific herbicide applications,” Precision Agriculture, vol. 4, no. 1, pp. 5–18, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  149. Y. Gil, C. Sinfort, S. Guillaume, Y. Brunet, and B. Palagos, “Influence of micrometeorological factors on pesticide loss to the air during vine spraying: data analysis with statistical and fuzzy inference models,” Biosystems Engineering, vol. 100, no. 2, pp. 184–197, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  150. Z. Qiu, X. Tong, J. Shen, and Y. Bao, “Irrigation decision-making system based on the fuzzy-control theory and virtual instrument,” Nongye Gongcheng Xuebao/Transactions of the Chinese Society of Agricultural Engineering, vol. 23, no. 8, pp. 165–169, 2007. View at Google Scholar
  151. F. Touati, M. Al-Hitmi, K. Benhmed, and R. Tabish, “A fuzzy logic based irrigation system enhanced with wireless data logging applied to the state of Qatar,” Computers and Electronics in Agriculture, vol. 98, pp. 233–241, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  152. R. B. Ali, E. Aridhi, M. Abbes, and A. Mami, “Fuzzy logic controller of temperature and humidity inside an agricultural greenhouse,” in 2016 7th International Renewable Energy Congress (IREC), Hammamet, Tunisia, March 2016. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  153. F. Fourati, “Multiple neural control of a greenhouse,” Neurocomputing, vol. 139, pp. 138–144, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  154. M. Taki, Y. Ajabshirchi, S. Faramarz Ranjbar, A. Rohani, and M. Matloobi, “Heat transfer and MLP neural network models to predict inside environment variables and energy lost in a semi-solar greenhouse,” Energy and Buildings, vol. 110, pp. 314–329, 2016. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  155. F. Lafont and J.-F. Balmat, “Optimized fuzzy control of a greenhouse,” Fuzzy Sets and Systems, vol. 128, no. 1, pp. 47–59, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  156. P. Salgado and J. B. Cunha, “Greenhouse climate hierarchical fuzzy modelling,” Control Engineering Practice, vol. 13, no. 5, pp. 613–628, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  157. M. Azaza, K. Echaieb, F. Tadeo, E. Fabrizio, A. Iqbal, and A. Mami, “Fuzzy decoupling control of greenhouse climate,” Arabian Journal for Science and Engineering, vol. 40, no. 9, pp. 2805–2812, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  158. A. Chouchaine, E. Feki, and A. Mami, “Stabilization using a discrete fuzzy PDC control with PID controllers and pole placement: application to an experimental greenhouse,” Journal of Control Science and Engineering, vol. 2011, Article ID 537491, 9 pages, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  159. S. Zeng, H. Hu, L. Xu, and G. Li, “Nonlinear adaptive PID control for greenhouse environment based on RBF network,” Sensors, vol. 12, no. 5, pp. 5328–5348, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  160. X. Zhu, D. Li, D. He, J. Wang, D. Ma, and F. Li, “A remote wireless system for water quality online monitoring in intensive fish culture,” Computers and Electronics in Agriculture, vol. 71, pp. S3–S9, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  161. S. Mahajan, A. Das, and H. K. Sardana, “Image acquisition techniques for assessment of legume quality,” Trends in Food Science and Technology, vol. 42, no. 2, pp. 116–133, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus