Table 1: Analysis and comparison of cooperative localization techniques.

Localization techniquesAdvantagesDisadvantagesApplicable conditionsIn literature of optimal sensor placements
(Ref number)

Time of ArrivalHigh accuracy which is not much affected by range; significant literature availableTime synchronization between sensors and targets requiredSuitable for long rage, NLOS operations[2735]
Angle of ArrivalClock synchronization not required between targets and sensors; Smaller number of sensors requiredAccuracy decreases with range; High accuracy directional antennas are to be installed, additionallySuitable for short ranges when there is limitation on number of sensors[36, 37]
Time Difference of ArrivalHigh accuracy even at long ranges; No time synchronization between sensors and target requiredLarger number of sensors required as compared to other methodsBest option for long ranges operations when larger number of sensors are available[38]
Received Signal strengthDoes not need to install extra hardware in both, targets and sensors
Severely affected by multipath, NLOS and other underwater environmental conditionsSuitable for short ranges and LOS communication onlyNone