Journal of Solar Energy / 2015 / Article / Tab 1

Research Article

The Potential of Concentrated Solar Power for Remote Mine Sites in the Northern Territory, Australia

Table 1

Comparison of CSP collecting technologies [1, 1113].

TechnologyParabolic trough systemCentral tower systemLinear Fresnel systemParabolic dish system

Sketch

Description(i) Sun rays focused by parabolic through reflectors
(ii) Pipes containing heat transfer fluid run through the reflector focal points
(i) Arrays of heliostats focus sunlight on a central receiver
(ii) Heat transfer fluid runs through the receiver and generates steam
(i) Sun rays are focused by an array of linear mirror strips on a line receiver
(ii) Linear fixed receiver is mounted on a tower
(i) An array of point-focus collectors tracks the sun in two axes
(ii) Sun rays are focused on a receiver at the dish focal point

Maturity (2012)Commercially proven (over 25 years), 3124 MWe installed as at 2013Pilot commercial projects (medium to high maturity), 64 MWe installed as at 2013Pilot projects (medium maturity), 288 MWe installed as at 2013Demonstration projects (low maturity), 1.5 MWe as at 2013

Typical capacity (MW)10–30010–20010–2000.01–0.025

Operating range (°C)150–550250–1200150–500300–1500

Power cycles consideredSteam Rankine
Organic Rankine
Steam Rankine
Brayton cycle
Steam Rankine
Organic Rankine
Stirling engine
Steam Rankine

Plant peak efficiency (%)14–20231830

Annual solar to kWh efficiency net (%)11–167–201312–25

Maximum slope of solar fieldUp to 2%Up to 4%Up to 4%10% or more

Water requirement (m3/MWh)3 (wet cooling)
0.3 (dry)
2-3 (wet)
0.25 (dry)
3 (wet)
0.2 (dry)
0.05–0.1 (mirror washing)

Land occupancyLargeMediumMediumSmall

Typical surface area (m2)300–900100–20030–30050–100

Heat transfer fluidWater/steam and synthetic oilWater/steam, air, and molten saltWater/steamN/A (Stirling engine or microturbine)

Storage system demonstratedMolten saltMolten saltPressurized steamOnly indirect storage

Other storage optionsMolten salt, concrete, and phase change materialsConcrete, ceramics, and phase change materialsMolten salt, concrete, and phase change materialsConcentrated heat to catalytically break NH3 into N2 and H2 for storage to recombine for release of heat

Advantages(i) Mature steam cycle systems
(ii) Success record of 354 MW (California)
(iii) Simple design (single axis tracking)
(iv) Hybridization with natural gas is attractive and functional
(v) Ability to connect with thermal storage
(i) High temperatures and high thermal efficiency (dual axis tracking)
(ii) High capacity factor and molten salt that can be used as direct HTF
(iii) Simple network (single tower)
(iv) Flat mirrors easy to construct and inexpensive
(i) Understood steam cycle systems
(ii) Simple design (single axis tracking)
(iii) Hybridization is possible
(iv) Ability to connect with thermal storage
(v) Flat mirrors easy to construct and inexpensive
(i) High temperatures and high thermal efficiency (dual axis tracking)
(ii) Costs benefits in mass production compared to other technologies
(iii) Does not require levelled surface

Disadvantages(i) Water requirements may become a site specific constraint
(ii) Maximum temperature is limited
(iii) Surface has to be flattened for troughs to be installed
(iv) Sun tracking is limited in single axis systems
(v) Curved mirrors are sophisticated and require special manufacturing
(i) Water requirements may become a site specific constraint
(ii) Requires high capital investment
(iii) Only sufficiently large units are cost effective and feasible
(iv) Sun tracking can be a complex job
(v) Surface has to be flattened for troughs to be installed
(i) Water requirements may become a site specific constraint
(ii) Sun tracking is limited in single axis systems
(iii) Surface has to be flattened for troughs to be installed
(i) Requires very high capital investment
(ii) Manufacturing of parabolic dish is very sophisticated and incurs very high costs
(iii) O&M costs could be very high
(iv) Thermal storage is not possible
(v) Surface roughness has a limitation

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