Journal of Sports Medicine / 2018 / Article / Tab 7

Review Article

Interactions of Gut Microbiota, Endotoxemia, Immune Function, and Diet in Exertional Heatstroke

Table 7

Foods which have moderate-to-strong   and   effects.

CharacteristicsRepresentative foodsActive constituentsReferences

Anti-inflammatoryVegetables: avocado, cabbage, carrot, chili pepper, kale, onion, spinach,
Fruit: apple, blueberry, cherry, grape, grapefruit, orange, strawberry, watermelon
Nut: almond, Brazil nuts, cashews, hazelnut, macadamia, peanut, pine nut, pistachio, pecan, walnut
Fish: anchovy, herring, mackerel, salmon, sardine
Other: black pepper,clove, caraway, extra virgin olive oil, flaxseed, green coffee, licorice, nutmeg, oregano, wine (red), sage, tea, thyme
DHA, EPA, capsaicin, carotenoids, curcumin, flavonoids, maresins, monosaturated fats, monoterpenes, omega-3 fatty acids, polyphenols, protectins, quercetin, resolvins, resveratrol, sulfidesKang et al., 2009; Landberg et al., 2011; Mueller et al., 2010; Sears, 2015 [303]; Tsai et al., 2005; Wu & Schauss, 2012 [267], Bolling et al., 2011 [263]; Watzl, 2008

AntioxidantVegetables: beet, beet root, black carrots, cauliflower, chili pepper, garlic, ginger, leek, lettuce, potato, red pepper, turnip, yam
Fruit:  black berry, cherry, strawberry
Nut: pecan
Other: mint, rice bran, turmeric
α-tocopherol, β-carotene, anthocyanins, carotenoids, ellagitannins, flavonoids, lycopene, phytoestrogens, polyphenols, proanthocyanidins, sulfidesKaur & Kapoor, 2002; Tsai et al., 2005; Wu et al., 2004 [347]; Hassan & Abdel-Aziz, 2010; Bolling et al., 2011 [263]; Watzl, 2008; Gülçin, 2012

Typically determined via blood tests for proinflammatory cytokines (IL-6, TNFα, and IL-1), chemokines, acute-phase proteins, cell adhesion molecules, and adipokines [267]; determined via laboratory analyses of the antioxidant activity of food constituents, including phenolic compounds (e.g., flavonoids, isoflavones, and proanthocyanidins), antioxidant vitamins (α-tocopherol, β-carotene), lipids (carotenoids, sterols), total antioxidant capacity (lipophilic plus hydrophilic methods), and/or the oxygen radical absorbance capacity assay [263, 266, 282, 347]. Multianalyte profile technology identifies inflammatory and oxidative biomarkers simultaneously in serum or plasma [348]; also see the US Department of Agriculture database at DHA, docosahexaenoic acid; EPA, eicosapentaenoic acid.

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