Kaur & Kapoor, 2002; Tsai et al., 2005; Wu et al., 2004 ; Hassan & Abdel-Aziz, 2010; Bolling et al., 2011 ; Watzl, 2008; Gülçin, 2012
Typically determined via blood tests for proinflammatory cytokines (IL-6, TNFα, and IL-1), chemokines, acute-phase proteins, cell adhesion molecules, and adipokines ; determined via laboratory analyses of the antioxidant activity of food constituents, including phenolic compounds (e.g., flavonoids, isoflavones, and proanthocyanidins), antioxidant vitamins (α-tocopherol, β-carotene), lipids (carotenoids, sterols), total antioxidant capacity (lipophilic plus hydrophilic methods), and/or the oxygen radical absorbance capacity assay [263, 266, 282, 347]. Multianalyte profile technology identifies inflammatory and oxidative biomarkers simultaneously in serum or plasma ; also see the US Department of Agriculture database at https://ndb.nal.usda.gov/ndb/. DHA, docosahexaenoic acid; EPA, eicosapentaenoic acid.
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