Journal of Sports Medicine The latest articles from Hindawi © 2017 , Hindawi Limited . All rights reserved. Effects of Marathon Running on Aerobic Fitness and Performance in Recreational Runners One Week after a Race Thu, 24 Aug 2017 07:16:21 +0000 It is not clear whether or not recreational runners can recover aerobic fitness and performance within one week after marathon running. This study aimed to investigate the effects of running a marathon race on aerobic fitness and performance one week later. Eleven recreational runners (six men, five women) completed the race in 3 h 36 min 20 s ± 41 min 34 s (mean ± standard deviation). Before and 7 days after the race, they performed a treadmill running test. Perceived muscle soreness was assessed before the race and for the following 7 days. The magnitude of changes in the treadmill running test was considered possibly trivial for maximal oxygen uptake (O2max) (mean difference −1.2 ml/kg/min; ±90% confidence limits 2 ml/kg/min), unclear for %O2max at anaerobic threshold (AT) (−0.5; ±4.1%) and RE (0.2; ±3.5 ml/kg/km), and likely trivial for both velocity at AT and peak (−0.2; ±0.49 km/h and −0.3; ±0.28 km/h). Perceived muscle soreness increased until 3 days after the race, but there were no clear differences between the values before the race and 4–7 days after it. These results show that physiological capacity associated with marathon running performance is recovered within 7 days after a marathon run. Fuminori Takayama, Atsushi Aoyagi, Wataru Shimazu, and Yoshiharu Nabekura Copyright © 2017 Fuminori Takayama et al. All rights reserved. Open versus Closed Kinetic Chain Exercises following an Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis Thu, 17 Aug 2017 07:48:04 +0000 Background. There is no consensus on whether closed kinetic chain (CKC) or open kinetic chain (OKC) exercises should be the intervention of choice following an anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury or reconstruction. Methods. A systematic search identified randomized controlled trials of OKC versus CKC exercise training in people who had undergone ACL reconstructive surgery. All published studies in this systematic review were comparisons between OKC and CKC groups. Results. Seven studies were included. Lysholm knee scoring scale was not significantly different between OKC and CKC exercise patients: MD: −1.03%; CI: −13.02, 10.95; value = 0.87 (Chi2  =  0.18, df = 1, and value  =  0.67). Hughston clinic questionnaire scores were not significantly different between OKC and CKC exercise patients: MD: −1.29% (−12.02, 9.43); value = 0.81 (Chi2  =  0.01, df = 1, and value = 0.93). Conclusions. While OKC and CKC may be beneficial during ACL surgical rehabilitation, there is insufficient evidence to suggest that either one is superior to the other. Daniel Jewiss, Cecilia Ostman, and Neil Smart Copyright © 2017 Daniel Jewiss et al. All rights reserved. Concussion Incidence and Recurrence in Professional Australian Football Match-Play: A 14-Year Analysis Wed, 19 Jul 2017 07:54:33 +0000 Background. Concussion incidence rates in professional Australian football may be underreported due to the injury classification definition. A myriad of factors contribute to concussion risk; however, there is limited long-term surveillance in Australian football. This study analysed concussion in one Australian football team over an extended period. Method. Match-play concussion injuries in one team ( participants) were diagnosed and treated by the team physician over 14 years. Analysis of factors related to concussion including matches played, time of day and season, and return to play provided an insight into occurrence and recurrence rates. Results. 140 concussions were recorded (17.6 per 1000 player match hours). A strong relationship was evident between matches played and concussion incidence () and match conditions did not negatively affect the concussion rate. Whether an athlete returned to play in the same match or suffered a loss-of-consciousness concussion (), their ensuing rate of concussion was not affected. Conclusion. Concussion in professional Australian football was related to the number of matches played. Further, neither previous incidence nor loss of consciousness affected future concussion risk. This study provides ecologically valid evidence of the concussion incidence rate in professional Australian football and has implications for the management of athletes sustaining concussion injuries. Nathan Gibbs and Mark Watsford Copyright © 2017 Nathan Gibbs and Mark Watsford. All rights reserved. Characteristics and Clinical Outcomes in Overhead Sports Athletes after Rotator Cuff Repair Thu, 15 Jun 2017 08:49:58 +0000 Rotator cuff tears in young overhead sports athletes are rare. The pathomechanism causing rotator cuff tears in young overhead athletes is different from that in aged patients. The purpose of this study was to investigate rotator cuff tear characteristics in young overhead sports athletes to reveal the pathomechanism causing these injuries. This study included 25 overhead sports athletes less than 30 years old with atraumatic rotator cuff tears necessitating repair. Rotator cuff tear characteristics were evaluated intraoperatively, including rotator cuff tear shape and injured rotator cuff tendon. Clinical outcome measures were assessed before surgery and at the final follow-up. In this study, 22 patients reported minimal to no shoulder pain and returned to sports without significant complaints at last follow-up. The isolated infraspinatus tendon was most often injured; the incidence rate of the tear at this site was 32% (8 cases). In the deceleration phase of overhead motion, the eccentric contraction force of the ISP (infraspinatus) tendon peaks and the increased load leads to injury at the ISP tendon. The pathomechanism of rotator cuff injuries in young overhead athletes might be not only internal or subacromial impingement, but also these mechanisms. Tomoyuki Muto, Hiroaki Inui, Hiroki Ninomiya, Hiroshi Tanaka, and Katsuya Nobuhara Copyright © 2017 Tomoyuki Muto et al. All rights reserved. Reductions in Resting Blood Pressure in Young Adults When Isometric Exercise Is Performed Whilst Walking Sun, 07 May 2017 10:09:39 +0000 Aerobic and isometric training have been shown to reduce resting blood pressure, but simultaneous aerobic and isometric training have not been studied. The purpose of this study was to compare the changes in resting systolic (SBP), diastolic (DBP), and mean arterial blood pressure (MAP) after 6 weeks of either (i) simultaneous walking and isometric handgrip exercise (WHG), (ii) walking (WLK), (iii) isometric handgrip exercise (IHG), or control (CON). Forty-eight healthy sedentary participants (age 20.7 ± 1.7 yrs, mass 67.2 ± 10.2 kg, height 176.7 ± 1.2 cm, male , and female ) were randomly allocated, to one of four groups ( in each). Training was performed 4 × week−1 and involved either treadmill walking for 30 minutes (WLK), handgrip exercise 3 × 10 s at 20% MVC (IHG), or both performed simultaneously (WHG). Resting SBP, DBP, and MAP were recorded at rest, before and after the 6-week study period. Reductions in resting blood pressure were significantly greater in the simultaneous walking and handgrip group than any other group. These results show that simultaneous walking and handgrip training may have summative effects on reductions in resting blood pressure. Anthony W. Baross, David A. Hodgson, Sarah L. Padfield, and Ian L. Swaine Copyright © 2017 Anthony W. Baross et al. All rights reserved. Walking Cadence to Exercise at Moderate Intensity for Adults: A Systematic Review Tue, 28 Mar 2017 00:00:00 +0000 Background. Most adults choose walking as a leisure activity. However, many do not reach the international physical activity guidelines for adults, which recommend moderate intensity aerobic activity for at least 150 minutes/week in bouts of 10 minutes. Purpose. This systematic review provides an update on the walking cadence required to reach moderate intensity in adults and older adults, identifies variables associated with reaching moderate intensity, and evaluates how walking cadence intensity should be measured, but the main purpose is to report the interventions that have been attempted to prescribe walking cadence to increase time spent at moderate intensity or other outcomes for adults and older adults. Methods. SportDISCUS, Scopus, and PubMed databases were searched. We identified 3,917 articles and 31 were retained for this systematic review. Only articles written in English were included. Results. In general, 100 steps/minute is prescribed for adults to achieve moderate intensity, but older adults may require a higher cadence. Currently, few studies have explored using walking cadence prescription as an intervention to increase physical activity levels. Conclusion. Prescribing walking cadence as a way to increase physical activity levels has potential as a practical and useful strategy, but more evidence is required to assess its ability to increase physical activity levels at moderate intensity. J. Slaght, M. Sénéchal, T. J. Hrubeniuk, A. Mayo, and D. R. Bouchard Copyright © 2017 J. Slaght et al. All rights reserved. Graded Exercise Testing Protocols for the Determination of VO2max: Historical Perspectives, Progress, and Future Considerations Sun, 25 Dec 2016 06:25:16 +0000 Graded exercise testing (GXT) is the most widely used assessment to examine the dynamic relationship between exercise and integrated physiological systems. The information from GXT can be applied across the spectrum of sport performance, occupational safety screening, research, and clinical diagnostics. The suitability of GXT to determine a valid maximal oxygen consumption (VO2max) has been under investigation for decades. Although a set of recommended criteria exists to verify attainment of VO2max, the methods that originally established these criteria have been scrutinized. Many studies do not apply identical criteria or fail to consider individual variability in physiological responses. As an alternative to using traditional criteria, recent research efforts have been directed toward using a supramaximal verification protocol performed after a GXT to confirm attainment of VO2max. Furthermore, the emergence of self-paced protocols has provided a simple, yet reliable approach to designing and administering GXT. In order to develop a standardized GXT protocol, additional research should further examine the utility of self-paced protocols used in conjunction with verification protocols to elicit and confirm attainment of VO2max. Nicholas M. Beltz, Ann L. Gibson, Jeffrey M. Janot, Len Kravitz, Christine M. Mermier, and Lance C. Dalleck Copyright © 2016 Nicholas M. Beltz et al. All rights reserved. Efficiency of an Active Rehabilitation Intervention in a Slow-to-Recover Paediatric Population following Mild Traumatic Brain Injury: A Pilot Study Sun, 18 Dec 2016 09:26:12 +0000 Objective. The aim of this study was to identify whether the addition of an individualised Active Rehabilitation Intervention to standard care influences recovery of young patients who are slow-to-recover following a mTBI. Methods. Fifteen participants aged years received standard care and an individualised Active Rehabilitation Intervention which included (1) low- to high-intensity aerobic training; (2) sport-specific coordination exercises; and (3) therapeutic balance exercises. The following criteria were used to measure the resolution of signs and symptoms of mTBI: (1) absence of postconcussion symptoms for more than 7 consecutive days; (2) cognitive function corresponding to normative data; and (3) absence of deficits in coordination and balance. Results. The Active Rehabilitation Intervention lasted days. The duration of the intervention was correlated with self-reported participation (%, , ). The average postconcussion symptom inventory (PCSI) score went from a total of points to points after the intervention (, ). Conclusion. A progressive submaximal Active Rehabilitation Intervention may represent an important asset in the recovery of young patients who are slow-to-recover following a mTBI. Sarah Imhoff, Philippe Fait, Frédérike Carrier-Toutant, and Geneviève Boulard Copyright © 2016 Sarah Imhoff et al. All rights reserved. Quantifying the “Slosh Stomach”: A Novel Tool for Assessment of Exercise-Associated Gastroparesis Symptoms in Endurance Athletes Thu, 17 Nov 2016 09:39:38 +0000 Introduction. We describe a novel scale and its field use for evaluation of exercise-associated gastroparesis in the endurance athlete. Methods. A scale was created based on gastroparesis tools previously described in the medical literature. Surveys of the tool were administered to runners participating in a 210 km multiday foot race in Sri Lanka. Results. Use of this novel scale was demonstrated to be useful in assessing gastroparesis severity scores of athletes and how these symptoms affected their race performance. Of the 27 race participants who completed the survey, 27 felt that the tool adequately captured their symptoms. Conclusions. This novel survey tool was able to assess the presence and severity of exercise-associated gastroparesis symptoms in endurance racers in a remote location. This tool may be helpful with further research of the identification and management of gastroparesis and other gastrointestinal upset in the endurance race environment. Amy Sue Biondich and Jeremy D. Joslin Copyright © 2016 Amy Sue Biondich and Jeremy D. Joslin. All rights reserved. The Influence of Methylsulfonylmethane on Inflammation-Associated Cytokine Release before and following Strenuous Exercise Sun, 23 Oct 2016 12:27:01 +0000 Background. Inflammation is associated with strenuous exercise and methylsulfonylmethane (MSM) has been shown to have anti-inflammatory properties. Methods. Physically active men were supplemented with either placebo or MSM (3 grams per day) for 28 days before performing 100 repetitions of eccentric knee extension exercise. Ex vivo and in vitro testing consisted of evaluating cytokine production in blood (whole blood and isolated peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs)) exposed to lipopolysaccharide (LPS), before and through 72 hours after exercise, while in vivo testing included the evaluation of cytokines before and through 72 hours after exercise. Results. LPS stimulation of whole blood after MSM supplementation resulted in decreased induction of IL-1β, with no effect on IL-6, TNF-α, or IL-8. After exercise, there was a reduced response to LPS in the placebo, but MSM resulted in robust release of IL-6 and TNF-α. A small decrease in resting levels of proinflammatory cytokines was noted with MSM, while an acute postexercise increase in IL-10 was observed with MSM. Conclusion. Strenuous exercise causes a robust inflammatory reaction that precludes the cells from efficiently responding to additional stimuli. MSM appears to dampen the release of inflammatory molecules in response to exercise, resulting in a less incendiary environment, allowing cells to still have the capacity to mount an appropriate response to an additional stimulus after exercise. Mariè van der Merwe and Richard J. Bloomer Copyright © 2016 Mariè van der Merwe and Richard J. Bloomer. All rights reserved. Trajectories of Physical Activity Predict the Onset of Depressive Symptoms but Not Their Progression: A Prospective Cohort Study Tue, 04 Oct 2016 06:56:00 +0000 This prospective, community-based study examined trajectories of physical activity from childhood to adulthood and whether these trajectories contributed to depressive symptoms in adulthood to a greater degree than adulthood physical activity. Participants () were from the ongoing Cardiovascular Risk in Young Finns Study which started in 1980. Depressive symptoms were measured with Beck Depression Inventory (BDI-II) in 2012, and physical activity was assessed from 1980 to 2011 with self-reports. Analyses were adjusted for age, sex, childhood negative emotionality, socioeconomic factors, previous depressive symptoms, social support, body mass index, and smoking status (1980–2007). Highly, moderately, and lightly physically active trajectory groups were identified. Highly active participants reported lower levels of depressive symptoms compared to lightly active ones () and compared to moderately active ones (). Moderately active participants had less symptoms than lightly active ones (). High levels of adulthood physical activity associated with lower levels of depressive symptoms (). The findings did not withstand adjustment for previous depressive symptoms (). Lifelong physical activity trajectories or adulthood physical activity was not associated with the progression of depressive symptoms in adulthood. Thus, physical activity history does not contribute to the progression of the depressive symptoms to a greater degree than adulthood physical activity. Kaisa Kaseva, Tom Rosenström, Taina Hintsa, Laura Pulkki-Råback, Tuija Tammelin, Jari Lipsanen, Xiaolin Yang, Mirka Hintsanen, Christian Hakulinen, Katja Pahkala, Mirja Hirvensalo, Nina Hutri-Kähönen, Olli T. Raitakari, and Liisa Keltikangas-Järvinen Copyright © 2016 Kaisa Kaseva et al. All rights reserved. Cervical Spine Involvement in Mild Traumatic Brain Injury: A Review Tue, 26 Jul 2016 09:58:09 +0000 Background. There is a lack of scientific evidence in the literature on the involvement of the cervical spine in mTBI; however, its involvement is clinically accepted. Objective. This paper reviews evidence for the involvement of the cervical spine in mTBI symptoms, the mechanisms of injury, and the efficacy of therapy for cervical spine with concussion-related symptoms. Methods. A keyword search was conducted on PubMed, ICL, SportDiscus, PEDro, CINAHL, and Cochrane Library databases for articles published since 1990. The reference lists of articles meeting the criteria (original data articles, literature reviews, and clinical guidelines) were also searched in the same databases. Results. 4,854 records were screened and 43 articles were retained. Those articles were used to describe different subjects such as mTBI’s signs and symptoms, mechanisms of injury, and treatments of the cervical spine. Conclusions. The hypothesis of cervical spine involvement in post-mTBI symptoms and in PCS (postconcussion syndrome) is supported by increasing evidence and is widely accepted clinically. For the management and treatment of mTBIs, few articles were available in the literature, and relevant studies showed interesting results about manual therapy and exercises as efficient tools for health care practitioners. Michael Morin, Pierre Langevin, and Philippe Fait Copyright © 2016 Michael Morin et al. All rights reserved. Validity of a Smartphone-Based Application for Determining Sprinting Performance Thu, 21 Jul 2016 13:02:17 +0000 Recent innovations in smartphone technology have led to the development of a number of applications for the valid and reliable measurement of physical performance. Smartphone applications offer a number of advantages over laboratory based testing including cost, portability, and absence of postprocessing. However, smartphone applications for the measurement of running speed have not yet been validated. In the present study, the iOS smartphone application, SpeedClock, was compared to conventional timing lights during flying 10 m sprints in recreationally active women. Independent samples -test showed no statistically significant difference between SpeedClock and timing lights (, ), while intraclass correlations showed excellent agreement between SpeedClock and timing lights (ICC (2,1) = 0.93, , 95% CI 0.64–0.97). Bland-Altman plots showed a small systematic bias (mean difference = 0.13 seconds) with SpeedClock giving slightly lower values compared to the timing lights. Our findings suggest SpeedClock for iOS devices is a low-cost, valid tool for the assessment of mean flying 10 m sprint velocity in recreationally active females. Systematic bias should be considered when interpreting the results from SpeedClock. Robert Stanton, Melanie Hayman, Nyree Humphris, Hanna Borgelt, Jordan Fox, Luke Del Vecchio, and Brendan Humphries Copyright © 2016 Robert Stanton et al. All rights reserved. Clinical Outcomes and Complications of Cortical Button Distal Biceps Repair: A Systematic Review of the Literature Thu, 21 Jul 2016 08:32:37 +0000 Objectives. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the clinical outcomes and complications of the cortical button distal biceps fixation method. Material and Methods. All methods followed the PRISMA guidelines. Included studies had to describe clinical outcomes and complications after acute distal biceps repair with cortical button fixation. Eligibility criteria also included English language, more than 5 cases with minimum follow-up of 6 months, and preferably usage of at least one relevant clinical score (MEPS, ASES, and/or DASH) for final outcome. A loss of at least 30° in motion—flexion, extension, pronation, or supination—and a loss of at least 30% of strength were considered an unsatisfactory result. Results. The review identified 7 articles including 105 patients (mean age 43.6 years) with 106 acute distal biceps ruptures. Mean follow-up was 26.3 months. Functional outcome of ROM regarding flexion/extension and pronation/supination was satisfactory in 94 (89.5%) and 86 (82%) patients in respect. Averaged flexion and supination strength had been reported in 6/7 studies (97 patients) and were satisfactory in 82.4% of them. The most common complication was transient nerve palsy (14.2%). The overall reoperation rate was 4.8% (5/105 cases). Conclusion. Cortical button fixation for acute distal biceps repair is a reproducible operation with good clinical results. Most of the complications can be avoided with appropriate surgical technique. Andreas Panagopoulos, Irini Tatani, Pantelis Tsoumpos, Dimitris Ntourantonis, Konstantinos Pantazis, and Ioannis K. Triantafyllopoulos Copyright © 2016 Andreas Panagopoulos et al. All rights reserved. Examining Measures of Weight as Risk Factors for Sport-Related Injury in Adolescents Wed, 20 Jul 2016 07:54:44 +0000 Objectives. To examine body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference (WC) as risk factors for sport injury in adolescents. Design. A secondary analysis of prospectively collected data from a pilot cluster randomized controlled trial. Methods. Adolescents () at the ages of 11–15 years from two Calgary junior high schools were included. BMI (kg/m2) and WC (cm) were measured from direct measures at baseline assessment. Categories (overweight/obese) were created using validated international (BMI) and national (WC) cut-off points. A Poisson regression analysis controlling for relevant covariates (sex, previous injury, sport participation, intervention group, and aerobic fitness level) estimated the risk of sport injury [incidence rate ratios (IRR) with 95% confidence intervals (CI)]. Results. There was an increased risk of time loss injury (IRR = 2.82, 95% CI: 1.01–8.04) and knee injury (IRR = 2.07, 95% CI: 1.00–6.94) in adolescents that were overweight/obese; however, increases in injury risk for all injury and lower extremity injury were not statistically significant. Estimates suggested a greater risk of time loss injury [IRR = 1.63 (95% CI: 0.93–2.47)] in adolescents with high measures of WC. Conclusions. There is an increased risk of time loss injury and knee injury in overweight/obese adolescents. Sport injury prevention training programs should include strategies that target all known risk factors for injury. Sarah A. Richmond, Alberto Nettel-Aguirre, Patricia K. Doyle-Baker, Alison Macpherson, and Carolyn A. Emery Copyright © 2016 Sarah A. Richmond et al. All rights reserved. A Scoping Review of the Associations of Golf with Eye Injuries in Adults and Children Mon, 18 Jul 2016 12:38:53 +0000 Introduction. Sport presents a risk of ocular trauma and accounts for a significant number of eye injuries that require hospital admission. The sport of golf presents a risk to eyesight from fast moving objects such as golf clubs and balls. This study aims to investigate the associations of golf with eye injuries and the reasons that these injuries occur. Material/Methods. A literature search was conducted using the databases MEDLINE, Web of Science, SPORTDiscus, and PsycINFO. Grey literature was searched using the WHO international clinical trials registry platform, Google Scholar, and ProQuest. Data was extracted using a standardised form and summarised into a report. Results and Discussion. Twenty-three studies were found relating to eye injuries in golf. Injuries appear to be rare, but more frequent in men and children. Injuries resulted in high rates of enucleation and visual impairment. Children sustained more injury from golf clubs whereas adults sustained more injuries from golf balls. Conclusion. Efforts are needed to encourage golf participants to understand the risks of ocular and indeed other head injuries. Initiatives to provide appropriate supervision and education on this topic are merited. Further research is needed to investigate the circumstances of eye injury in golf and assess the effects of interventions aimed at reducing risk of injury. Evan Jenkins, Roger Hawkes, and Andrew Murray Copyright © 2016 Evan Jenkins et al. All rights reserved. Muscle Activation Differs between Three Different Knee Joint-Angle Positions during a Maximal Isometric Back Squat Exercise Mon, 18 Jul 2016 12:24:49 +0000 The purpose of this study was to compare muscle activation of the lower limb muscles when performing a maximal isometric back squat exercise over three different positions. Fifteen young, healthy, resistance-trained men performed an isometric back squat at three knee joint angles (20°, 90°, and 140°) in a randomized, counterbalanced fashion. Surface electromyography was used to measure muscle activation of the vastus lateralis (VL), vastus medialis (VM), rectus femoris (RF), biceps femoris (BF), semitendinosus (ST), and gluteus maximus (GM). In general, muscle activity was the highest at 90° for the three quadriceps muscles, yet differences in muscle activation between knee angles were muscle specific. Activity of the GM was significantly greater at 20° and 90° compared to 140°. The BF and ST displayed similar activation at all joint angles. In conclusion, knee position alters muscles activation of the quadriceps and gluteus maximus muscles. An isometric back squat at 90° generates the highest overall muscle activation, yet an isometric back squat at 140° generates the lowest overall muscle activation of the VL and GM only. Paulo Henrique Marchetti, Josinaldo Jarbas da Silva, Brad Jon Schoenfeld, Priscyla Silva Monteiro Nardi, Silvio Luis Pecoraro, Julia Maria D’Andréa Greve, and Erin Hartigan Copyright © 2016 Paulo Henrique Marchetti et al. All rights reserved. Comparison of Muscle Onset Activation Sequences between a Golf or Tennis Swing and Common Training Exercises Using Surface Electromyography: A Pilot Study Wed, 15 Jun 2016 07:36:52 +0000 Aim. The purpose of this pilot study is to use surface electromyography to determine an individual athlete’s typical muscle onset activation sequence when performing a golf or tennis forward swing and to use the method to assess to what degree the sequence is reproduced with common conditioning exercises and a machine designed for this purpose. Methods. Data for 18 healthy male subjects were collected for 15 muscles of the trunk and lower extremities. Data were filtered and processed to determine the average onset of muscle activation for each motion. A Spearman correlation estimated congruence of activation order between the swing and each exercise. Correlations of each group were pooled with 95% confidence intervals using a random effects meta-analytic strategy. Results. The averaged sequences differed among each athlete tested, but pooled correlations demonstrated a positive association between each exercise and the participants’ natural muscle onset activation sequence. Conclusion. The selected training exercises and Turning Point™ device all partially reproduced our athletes’ averaged muscle onset activation sequences for both sports. The results support consideration of a larger, adequately powered study using this method to quantify to what degree each of the selected exercises is appropriate for use in both golf and tennis. John M. Vasudevan, Andrew Logan, Rebecca Shultz, Jeffrey J. Koval, Eugene Y. Roh, and Michael Fredericson Copyright © 2016 John M. Vasudevan et al. All rights reserved. Plasma Cytokine Profiles in Long-Term Strenuous Exercise Thu, 28 Apr 2016 06:17:35 +0000 The open window theory indicates altered immunity 3 to 72 hours after exercise. The J-curve describes the risk of illness in response to exercise. The aim of this study was to examine the secretion of proinflammatory and anti-inflammatory cytokines before and after long-term strenuous exercise. Fourteen marathon and 16 half-marathon runners and 10 military cadets participating in a military ranger-training course were recruited to this study. Within-subject design was used measuring levels of plasma cytokines before, during, and after exercise. Plasma cytokines were measured using Luminex multiplex technology and ELISA. Comparing pre/post plasma levels both the marathon- and the half-marathon runners showed heavily increased levels of IL-6, IL-10, and IL-8 (). LPS stimulation among the half-marathon runners decreased the postrace levels of IL-6, IL-1b, and TNFα by 45%, 24%, and 43%, respectively (). During the ranger training course the spontaneous and LPS-stimulated levels of IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, IL-1b, and TNFα changed in a similar fashion as in the half-marathon runners although the fluctuations were smaller. Our study supports the open window and the J-curve theory; the immune system is more activated and the subjects are more threatened to infectious pathogens after intensive physical activity and in the period after exercise. Hilde G. Nielsen, Olav Øktedalen, Per-Kristian Opstad, and Torstein Lyberg Copyright © 2016 Hilde G. Nielsen et al. All rights reserved. Corrigendum to “Validity and Reliability of Farsi Version of Youth Sport Environment Questionnaire” Mon, 12 Oct 2015 06:09:26 +0000 Mohammad Ali Eshghi, Ramin Kordi, Amir Hossein Memari, Ahmad Ghaziasgar, Mohammad-Ali Mansournia, and Seyed Hojjat Zamani Sani Copyright © 2015 Mohammad Ali Eshghi et al. All rights reserved. Amniotic Tissues for the Treatment of Chronic Plantar Fasciosis and Achilles Tendinosis Sun, 27 Sep 2015 14:02:28 +0000 Introduction. Allogeneic amniotic tissue and fluid may be used to treat chronic plantar fasciosis and Achilles tendinosis. This innovative approach involves delivering a unique allograft of live human cells in a nonimmunogenic structural tissue matrix to treat chronic tendon injury. These tissues convey very positive regenerative attributes; procurement is performed with maternal consent during elective caesarian birth. Materials and Methods. In the present investigation all patients were unresponsive to multiple standard therapies for a minimum of 6 months and were treated with one implantation of PalinGen SportFLOW around the plantar fascia and/or around the Achilles paratenon. The patients were given a standard protocol for postimplant active rehabilitation. Results. The analogue pretreatment pain score (VAS) of 8. By the fourth week after treatment, all patients had significantly reduced self-reported pain. Twelve weeks following the procedure the average pain level had reduced to only 2. No adverse reactions were reported in any of the patients. Conclusion. All patients in this study experienced heel or Achilles pain, unresponsive to standard therapy protocols. After treatment all patients noted significant pain reduction, indicating that granulized amniotic membrane and amniotic fluid can be successfully used to treat both chronic plantar fasciosis and Achilles tendinosis. Bruce Werber Copyright © 2015 Bruce Werber. All rights reserved. Changes in Tissue Oxygen Saturation in Response to Different Calf Compression Sleeves Tue, 08 Sep 2015 06:48:15 +0000 Aim. The purpose was to examine the changes in tissue oxygen saturation (StO2) in response to the application of different commercially available calf compression sleeves. Methods. Eight subjects came to the laboratory to complete a session in seated position including 10 min of quiet rest followed by 3 min measuring calf StO2 without compression sleeves and then alternating of 3 min of passive rest and 3 min measuring StO2 with calf compression sleeves. A total of 15 different commercially available compression sleeves were studied in a randomized order. Calf StO2 was recorded using near-infrared spectroscopy. Results. StO2 was significantly increased with all compression sleeves compared with no compression (from +6.9% for the least effective to +22.6% for the most effective). Large differences were observed between compression sleeves . StO2 was positively correlated with compression pressure (; ). Conclusion. This study shows that wearing compression sleeves from various brands differently affects tissue oxygen saturation. Differences were linked to the compression pressure: higher compression pressures were associated with higher StO2. T. Dermont, L. Morizot, M. Bouhaddi, and A. Ménétrier Copyright © 2015 T. Dermont et al. All rights reserved. Nutritional Considerations for Performance in Young Athletes Wed, 19 Aug 2015 13:50:03 +0000 Nutrition is an integral component to any athletes training and performance program. In adults the balance between energy intake and energy demands is crucial in training, recovery, and performance. In young athletes the demands for training and performance remain but should be a secondary focus behind the demands associated with maintaining the proper growth and maturation. Research interventions imposing significant physiological loads and diet manipulation are limited in youth due to the ethical considerations related to potential negative impacts on the growth and maturation processes associated with younger individuals. This necessary limitation results in practitioners providing nutritional guidance to young athletes to rely on exercise nutrition recommendations intended for adults. While many of the recommendations can appropriately be repurposed for the younger athlete attention needs to be taken towards the differences in metabolic needs and physiological differences. JohnEric W. Smith, Megan E. Holmes, and Matthew J. McAllister Copyright © 2015 JohnEric W. Smith et al. All rights reserved. Validity and Reliability of Farsi Version of Youth Sport Environment Questionnaire Wed, 12 Aug 2015 07:56:10 +0000 The Youth Sport Environment Questionnaire (YSEQ) had been developed from Group Environment Questionnaire, a well-known measure of team cohesion. The aim of this study was to adapt and examine the reliability and validity of the Farsi version of the YSEQ. This version was completed by 455 athletes aged 13–17 years. Results of confirmatory factor analysis indicated that two-factor solution showed a good fit to the data. The results also revealed that the Farsi YSEQ showed high internal consistency, test-retest reliability, and good concurrent validity. This study indicated that the Farsi version of the YSEQ is a valid and reliable measure to assess team cohesion in sport setting. Mohammad Ali Eshghi, Ramin Kordi, Amir Hossein Memari, Ahmad Ghaziasgar, Mohammad-Ali Mansournia, and Seyed Hojjat Zamani Sani Copyright © 2015 Mohammad Ali Eshghi et al. All rights reserved. Physiological and Psychophysical Responses to Listening to Music during Warm-Up and Circuit-Type Resistance Exercise in Strength Trained Men Tue, 04 Aug 2015 15:55:06 +0000 The purpose of this study was to assess the effects of listening to music during warm-up and resistance exercise on physiological (heart rate and blood pressure) and psychophysical (rating of perceived exertion) responses in trained athletes. Twelve strength trained male participants performed warm-up and resistance exercise without music (WU+RE without M), warm-up and resistance exercise with music (WU+RE with M), WU with M and RE without M, and WU without M and RE with M, with 48 hours space between sessions. After completing each session, the rating of perceived exertion (RPE) was measured. Also, heart rate (HR), systolic (SBP) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP), mean arterial pressure (MAP), and rate pressure product (RPP) were assessed before, after, and 15, 30, 45, and 60 min after exercise. Results indicated that RPE was higher for WU+RE without M condition in comparison with other conditions. All conditions showed increases in cardiovascular variables after exercise. The responses of HR, SBP, and RPP were higher for WU+RE without M condition. Thus, using music during warm-up and resistance exercise is a legal method for decreasing RPE and cardiovascular responses due to resistance exercise. Hamid Arazi, Abbas Asadi, and Morteza Purabed Copyright © 2015 Hamid Arazi et al. All rights reserved. Validation of the Continuum of Care Conceptual Model for Athletic Therapy Mon, 27 Jul 2015 06:29:10 +0000 Utilization of conceptual models in field-based emergency care currently borrows from existing standards of medical and paramedical professions. The purpose of this study was to develop and validate a comprehensive conceptual model that could account for injuries ranging from nonurgent to catastrophic events including events that do not follow traditional medical or prehospital care protocols. The conceptual model should represent the continuum of care from the time of initial injury spanning to an athlete’s return to participation in their sport. Finally, the conceptual model should accommodate both novices and experts in the AT profession. This paper chronicles the content validation steps of the Continuum of Care Conceptual Model for Athletic Therapy (CCCM-AT). The stages of model development were domain and item generation, content expert validation using a three-stage modified Ebel procedure, and pilot testing. Only the final stage of the modified Ebel procedure reached a priori 80% consensus on three domains of interest: (1) heading descriptors; (2) the order of the model; (3) the conceptual model as a whole. Future research is required to test the use of the CCCM-AT in order to understand its efficacy in teaching and practice within the AT discipline. Mark R. Lafave, Dale Butterwick, and Breda Eubank Copyright © 2015 Mark R. Lafave et al. All rights reserved. The Potentially Positive Role of PRPs in Preventing Femoral Tunnel Widening in ACL Reconstruction Surgery Using Hamstrings: A Clinical Study in 51 Patients Sun, 09 Nov 2014 00:00:00 +0000 Purpose. In this study, the early and midterm clinical and radiological results of the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction surgery with or without the use of platelet rich plasma (PRP) focusing on the tunnel-widening phenomenon are evaluated. Methods. This is a double blind, prospective randomized study. 51 patients have completed the assigned protocol. Recruited individuals were divided into two groups: a group with and a group without the use of PRPs. Patients were assessed on the basis of MRI scans, which were performed early postoperatively and repeated at least one-year postoperatively. The diameter was measured at the entrance, at the bottom, and at the mid distance of the femoral tunnel. Results. Our study confirmed the existence of tunnel widening as a phenomenon. The morphology of the dilated tunnels was conical in both groups. There was a statistical significant difference in the mid distance of the tunnels between the two groups. This finding may support the role of a biologic response secondary to mechanical triggers. Conclusions. The use of RPRs in ACL reconstruction surgery remains a safe option that could potentially eliminate the biologic triggers of tunnel enlargement. The role of mechanical factors, however, remains important. Konstantinos A. Starantzis, Dimitrios Mastrokalos, Dimitrios Koulalis, Olympia Papakonstantinou, Panayiotis N. Soucacos, and Panayiotis J. Papagelopoulos Copyright © 2014 Konstantinos A. Starantzis et al. All rights reserved. Strength Gains as a Result of Brief, Infrequent Resistance Exercise in Older Adults Tue, 30 Sep 2014 11:41:22 +0000 Chronological aging is associated with a decrease in skeletal muscle mass and bone mineral density, an increase in fat mass, frequency of falls and fractures, and the likelihood of obesity, diabetes, and coronary heart disease. Resistance exercise has been shown to counter all of these effects of aging and, in turn, reduce the risk of all-cause mortality. However, variables such as volume and frequency have become contentious issues, with recent publications suggesting that similar physiological adaptations are possible with both high- and low-volume approaches. The aim of this research was to consider strength increases as a result of brief, infrequent resistance exercise. The present study offers data from 33 (14 male and 19 female) older adults ( years) who underwent brief (<15 minutes per exercise session), infrequent (2×/week), resistance exercise to a high intensity of effort (6-repetition maximum) at a controlled repetition duration (10 seconds concentric : 10 seconds eccentric) on 5 resistance machines (chest press, leg press, pull-down, seated row, and overhead press). Data is presented for training interventions of 12 weeks (male) and 19 weeks (female). Significant strength increases were identified for all exercises. With the detailed health benefits obtainable, the present study suggests that resistance exercise can be efficacious in much smaller volumes than previously considered. James Fisher, James Steele, Pat McKinnon, and Stephen McKinnon Copyright © 2014 James Fisher et al. All rights reserved. Functional Popliteal Artery Entrapment Syndrome: Poorly Understood and Frequently Missed? A Review of Clinical Features, Appropriate Investigations, and Treatment Options Sun, 07 Sep 2014 07:03:03 +0000 Functional popliteal artery entrapment syndrome (PAES) is an important and possibly underrecognized cause of exertional leg pain (ELP). As it is poorly understood, it is at risk of misdiagnosis and mismanagement. The features indicative of PAES are outlined, as it can share features with other causes of ELP. Investigating functional PAES is also fraught with potential problems and if it is performed incorrectly, it can result in false negative and false positive findings. A review of the current vascular investigations is provided, highlighting some of the limitations standard tests have in determining functional PAES. Once a clinical suspicion for PAES is satisfied, it is necessary to further distinguish the subcategories of anatomical and functional entrapment and the group of asymptomatic occluders. When definitive entrapment is confirmed, it is important to identify the level of entrapment so that precise intervention can be performed. Treatment strategies for functional PAES are discussed, including the possibility of a new, less invasive intervention of guided Botulinum toxin injection at the level of entrapment as an alternative to vascular surgery. Matthew Hislop, Dominic Kennedy, Brendan Cramp, and Sanjay Dhupelia Copyright © 2014 Matthew Hislop et al. All rights reserved. Effects of Cooling on Ankle Muscle Strength, Electromyography, and Gait Ground Reaction Forces Sun, 04 May 2014 10:24:01 +0000 The effects of cooling on neuromuscular function and performance during gait are not fully examined. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of local cooling for 20 min in cold water at 10°C in a climate chamber also at 10°C on maximal isometric force and electromyographic (EMG) activity of the lower leg muscles. Gait ground reaction forces (GRFs) were also assessed. Sixteen healthy university students participated in the within subject design experimental study. Isometric forces of the tibialis anterior (TA) and the gastrocnemius medialis (GM) were measured using a handheld dynamometer and the EMG was recorded using surface electrodes. Ground reaction forces during gait and the required coefficient of friction (RCOF) were recorded using a force plate. There was a significantly reduced isometric maximum force in the TA muscle () after cooling. The mean EMG amplitude of GM muscle was increased after cooling (), indicating that fatigue was induced. We found no significant changes in the gait GRFs and RCOF on dry and level surface. These findings may indicate that local moderate cooling 20 min of 10°C cold water, may influence maximal muscle performance without affecting activities at sub-maximal effort. Amitava Halder, Chuansi Gao, and Michael Miller Copyright © 2014 Amitava Halder et al. 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