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Volume 25, Issue 1, Pages 13-21

Optimizing electroporation assisted silver nanoparticle delivery into living C666 cells for surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy

Yun Yu,1 Juqiang Lin,1 Yanan Wu,2 Shangyuan Feng,1 Yongzeng Li,1 Zufang Huang,1 Rong Chen,1,4 and Haishan Zeng3

1Key Laboratory of OptoElectronic Science and Technology for Medicine, Ministry of Education, Fujian Normal University, Fuzhou, Fujian, China
2Fujian Provincial Hospital, Fuzhou, Fujian, China
3Cancer Imaging Department, British Columbia Cancer Agency Research Centre, Vancouver, BC, Canada
4Key Laboratory of OptoElectronic Science and Technology for Medicine, Ministry of Education and Fujian Provincial Key Laboratory for Photonics Technology, Fujian Normal University, Fuzhou, 350007, China

Copyright © 2011 Hindawi Publishing Corporation. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


Electroporation assisted metallic nanoparticle delivery has been shown by our previous work to significantly reduce the time of sample preparation for surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) measurements of biological cells. In this paper, we report our experimental work to optimize the electroporation parameters, including adjustment of the pulse pattern, operation temperature, and electroporation buffer, for fastest delivery of silver nanoparticles into living C666 cells (a human nasopharyngeal carcinoma cell line). The delivery efficiency was evaluated by the integrated intensity of whole cell SERS spectrum. Our work concluded that the silver nanoparticle delivery rate is best under the electroporation condition of using 4 consecutive 350 V (875 V/cm) rectangular electric pulses of 1, 10, 10 and 1 ms durations, respectively. Low temperature (0–4°C) is necessary for keeping cell viability during the electroporation process and it also improves the delivery efficiency of silver nanoparticles. The serum in the buffer has no obvious effect on the delivery efficiency.