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Volume 25, Issue 3-4, Pages 169-176

The optimization of FTIR spectroscopy combined with partial least square for analysis of animal fats in quartenary mixtures

Abdul Rohman1,2 and Yaakob B. Che Man3

1Halal Products Research Institute, Universiti Putra Malaysia, Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia
2Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, Faculty of Pharmacy, and Halal Research Group LPPT, Gadjah Mada University, Yogyakarta, Indonesia
3Halal Products Research Institute, Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400 UPM, Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia

Copyright © 2011 Hindawi Publishing Corporation. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


Four types of animal fats, namely lard (LD) and body fats of lamb (LBF), cow (Cow-BF) and chicken (Ch-BF), in quaternary mixtures were quantitatively analyzed using FTIR spectroscopy in combination with multivariate calibration of partial least square (PLS). The animal fats, either individual or in quaternary mixtures, were subjected to horizontal total attenuated total reflectance (HATR) as sample handling technique and scanned at mid-infrared region (4000–650 cm–1) with resolution of 4 cm–1 and with 32 interferograms. PLS calibration revealed that the first derivative FTIR spectrum was well suited for the correlation between actual value of LD and FTIR calculated value. The other animal fats (LBF, Cow-BF and Ch-BF) were better determined using normal FTIR spectra. The coefficient of determination (R2) obtained using the optimized spectral treatments was higher than 0.99. The root mean standard error of calibration (RMSEC) values obtained were in the range of 0.773–1.55. Analysis of animal fats using FTIR spectroscopy allows rapid, no excessive sample preparation, and can be regarded as “green analytical technique” due to the absence of solvent and chemical reagent used during the analysis.